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Glossary of Kenyah Terms


custom, customary, tradition



Apo Kayan

area in centre of Borneo




Kenyah garden or orchard (any crop but rice)

banjir kap

a method of logging, whereby logs are floated out when


rivers flood last year's ricefield


tin holding 11 kg. of field dried rice




Head of the District administrative unit


Head of the Subdistrict administrative unit


outboard motor, with long propeller shaft

Gereja Protestan

Indonesia Barat

Protestant Church of western Indonesia


two-wheeled wheelbarrow

hak milik

rights of ownership

hak ulayat

rights of use

hukum adat

traditional law


crook (in river)


basketry backpack


tarsier (Tarsius bancanus)


secondary forest (< 30 years)

jekau Wet

young secondary forest

jekau dadu'

old secondary forest


District administrative unit


small, bad smelling ant-like insect with a small body and

kaum ibut

long legs which the people describe as urinating poison on the plant - perhaps rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius). women's group


Subdistrict administrative unit

Kemah Injil

Gereja Masehi


Bible Camp of the Christian Church of Indonesia


head (Indonesian)

kepala adat

a village leader in charge of customary matters related to



unidentified rice pest (insect)




honey tree (strangling fig)


lowland, flatland, flats




old growth forest




rice disease (probably blast)

njau alang

rice pest, probably brown planthopper (Nilaparuata lugeus).

njau liban

a kind of snake





Paren Biu'

The Big Leader or Highest Aristocrat


Pembangunan Lima Tahun (Five Year Plan)

Perkebunan Inti

Rakyat (PIR)

Nucleus Estate System (NES)

Program Bina Desa

Village Guidance Program




enough, sufficient


drought or dry spell

tai selai

circular migration, or to make an expedition


father of..




mother of..




worm that attacks rice, probably cutworm or armyworm (cf.


Watson and Willis 1983).

ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri)



uman undat

Rice Harvest Festival (lit. "eat new rice")


small red, unidentified bird, perhaps Lochura malacca jagori


second in command, vice-, representative


Abdulhadi, R., E. Mirmanto and K. Kartawinata (1987). A Lowland Dipterocarp Forest in Sekundur, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Five Years after Mechanized Logging. Proceedings Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps. (A.J.G.H. Kostermans, ed.) Jakarta: UNESCO, pp. 255-273.

Agraria (1976). Undang Undang Pokok Agraria (Undang Undang No. 5, Tahun 1960). Jakarta: Departemen Dalam Negeri, Direktorat Jenderal Agraria. [English translation]

Appell, G. N. (1971a). Systems of Land Tenure in Borneo: A Problem in Ecological Determinism. Borneo Research Bulletin 3:17-20.

(197lb). Observational Procedures for Land Tenure and Kin Groupings in the Cognatic Societies of Borneo. Unpublished manuscript.

(1986). Kayan Land Tenure and the Distribution of Devolvable Usufruct in Borneo. Borneo Research Bulletin 18:119-130.

Atkinson, Jane M. (1988) Religion and the Wana of Sulawesi. The Real and Imagined Role of Culture in Development (Michael Dove, ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp.41-61.

Azier, Albar (1980) Perilaku Penduduk dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Lingkungan Hutan Tropika Humida di Long Segar. [The Activities of the Population and their Effect on the Humid Tropical Rainforest Environment in Long Segar.] Thesis, Forestry Department, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, East Kalimantan.

Basic Rules of Forestry (1967). Jakarta: Ministry of Forestry.

Beukeboom, Hans (1989). Provincial Forest Economic Profiles. Jakarta: Directorate General of Forest Utilization, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia and FAO.

Boer, Chandradewana. (1989) Effects of the Forest Fire 1982/83 in East Kalimantan on Wildlife. Samarinda, East Kalimantan: Deutsche Forstservice GmbH, FR-Report No. 7.

Brotokusumo, M. (1991). Personal communication, Director, Environmental Studies Center and forester at Mulawarman University, Samarinda, East Kalimantan.

Bruce, John W. (1990). Rapid Appraisal of Tree and Land Tenure. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (Community Forestry Note 5).

Clay, Jason (1988). Indigenous Peoples and Tropical Forests: Models of Land Use and Management from Latin America. Cambridge, Mass: Cultural Survival.

Colfer, Carol J. Pierce (1981a). Women, Men and Time in the Forests of Kalimantan. Borneo Research Bulletin 13(2):75-85 (also Environment and Policy Institute Reprint No. 25, 1982).

(1981b). The Potential of Women in Agroforestry in Borneo. Pacific Health 14:10-14.

(1981e). Kenyah Dayak Tree Cutting in Context. Final Report, US-Indonesian Man and Biosphere Project, "Interactions Between People and Forests in East Kalimantan."

(1982). Women of the Forest: An Indonesian Example. Women in Natural Resources: An International Perspective (Stock, Force and Ehrenreich, eds.) Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Press.

(1983). Change and Indigenous Agroforestry in East Kalimantan. Borneo Research Bulletin 15(1&2):3-20,70-86.

(1985a). On Circular Migration: From the Distaff Side. Labour Circulation and the Labour Process (G. Standing, ed.). Geneva: London: Croom Helm Ltd. Also published in 1983 as a working paper by the ILO.

(1985b). Female Status and Action in Two Dayak Communities. Women in Asia and the Pacific: Toward an East-West Dialogue (M. Goodman, ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

(1991a). Indigenous Rice Production and the Subtleties of Culture Change: An Example from Borneo. Agriculture and Human Values (in press).

(1991b). Towards Sustainable Agriculture in the Humid Tropics: Building on the TropSoils/Indonesia Experience. Raleigh, North Carolina: TropSoils Technical Bulletin No. 91-02.

(manuscript). Building on Indigenous Management of Tropical Rainforests in Kalimantan.

and Herwasono Soedjito (1991). Food, Forests and Fields in a Bornean Rainforest: Toward Appropriate Agroforestry Development. Paper presented at the Workshop on Interactions Between People and Forests in Kalimantan. New York Botanical Garden, June.

Conway, Gordon (1985). Agroecosystem Analysis. Agricultural Administration 20:31-55.

(1987). The Properties of Agroecosystems. Agricultural Systems


Dove, Michael R. (1980a). The Use of the Finger Knife among the Iban. American Ethnologist 7(2):371-373.

(1980b). Development of Tribal Land-rights in Borneo: The Role of Ecological Factors. Borneo Research Bulletin 12:3-19.

(1984). The Chayanov Slope in a Swidden Society: Household Demography and Extensive Agriculture in Western Kalimantan. Chayanov, Peasants, and Economic Anthropology (E. P. Durrenberger, ed.) New York: Academic Press, pp. 97-132.

(1985). The Kantu' System of Land Tenure: The Evolution of Tribal Land Rights in Borneo. Studies in Third World Societies 33:159-182.

(1987) The Perception of Peasant Land Rights in Indonesian Development: Causes and Implications. Land, Trees and Tenure (Raintree, ed.). Nairobi/ Madison: ICRAF/Land Tenure Center.

(1988) The Ecology of Intoxication among the Kantu' of West Kalimantan. The Real and Imagined Role of Culture in Development (Dove, ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp. 139-182.

(1991). Geographical vs. Structural Analyses of Under-development and Resource Degradation in the Tropical Forest: Lessons from Kalimantan. Paper presented at the Workshop on Interactions Between People and Forests in Kalimantan. New York Botanical Garden (June).

Fulcher, Mary (1982). Dayak and Transmigration Communities in East Kalimantan. Borneo Research Bulletin 14(1):14-24.

Guerreiro, A. J. ad B. J. L. Sellato (1984). Traditional Migration in Borneo: The Kenyah Case. Borneo Research Bulletin 16(l):12-28.

Hadikusumah, Herri Y and Niken Sakuntaladewi (1991). Traditional Agriculture of Dayak Kenyah Society: Case Study in Long Ampung Village, Subdistrict of Kayan Hulu, Regency of Bulungan, East Kalimantan. Report for FAO Community Forestry Course in Advanced Rapid Rural Appraisal.

Hartshorn, G. S. (1989). Application of Gap Theory to Tropical Forest Management: Natural Regeneration on Strip Clear-Cuts in the Peruvian Amazon. Ecology 76:567-570.

(1990). Gap-Phase Dynamics and Tropical Tree Species Richness. Tropical Forests: Botanical Dynamics, Speciation and Diversity (Holm-Nielsen and Balslev, eds.). London: Academic Press, pp. 65-73.

, R. Simeone, J. A. Tossi, Jr. (1987). Sustained Yield Management of Tropical Forests: a Synopsis of the Palcazu Development Project in the Central Selva of the Peruvian Amazon. Translation of paper in Spanish published in Management of the Forests of Tropical America: Prospects and Technologies (Figueroa, Wadsworth and Branham, eds.). Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Institute of Tropical Forestry, pp.235-243.

Hoffman, Carl (1988) The "Wild Punan" of Borneo: A Matter of Economics. The Real and Imagined Role of Culture in Development (Dove, ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp. 89-118.

Inoue, Makoto and Abubakar M. Lahjie (1990). Dynamics of Swidden Agriculture in East Kalimantan. Agroforestry Systems 12:269-284.

Jessup, T. C. (1981). Why do Apo Kayan Shifting Cultivators Move? Borneo Research Bulletin 13:16-32.

(1991). Forests, People, and Conservation in the Kayan Mentarang Reserve, East Kalimantan. Paper presented at the Workshop on Interactions of People and Forests in Kalimantan, New York Botanical Garden, 21-23 July.

(n.d.) Forest Exploitation by Shifting Cultivators in Borneo (Kalimantan). Draft Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

and Cynthia Mackie (1984). A Response to Guerreiro and Sellato on Kenyah Migration. Borneo Research Bulletin 16(2):81-85.

and Nancy Peluso (1986). Minor Forest Products as Common Property Resources in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resources. Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences.

Kartawinata, K., Soenartono Adisoemarto, Soedarsono Riswan and A. P. Vayda (1981).
The Impact of Man on a Tropical Forest in Indonesia. Ambio 10(2,3):115-119.

, H. Soedjito, T. Jessup, A. P. Vayda, and C. Colfer (1984). The Impact of Development on Interactions Between People and Forests in East Kalimantan. Traditional Lifestyles, Conservation and Rural Development (J. Hanks, ed.). Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Commission on Ecology Papers No. 7, pages 87-95.

and A. P. Vayda (1984). Forest Conversion in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: The Activities and Impacts of Timber Companies, Shifting Cultivators, and Migrant Pepper Farmers and Others. Ecology in Practice: 1. Ecosystem Management (F. di Castri, F. W. G. Baker and M. Hadley, eds.) Paris: UNESCO, pp. 98-126.

, T. C. Jessup and A. P. Vayda (1989). Exploitation in Southeast Asia. Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems (H. Lieth and M. J. A. Werger, eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 591-610.

King, Victor (1975). Further Problems in Bornean Land Tenure Systems: Comments on an Argument. Borneo Research Bulletin 7:12-16.

Leaman, Danna J., Razali Yusuf, and Harini Sangat-Roemantyo (1991). Kenyah Dayak
Forest Medicines. Jakarta, Indonesia: Worldwide Fund for Nature (December).

LEAP (1980). Phase II: Outline Planning, Muara Wahau East. Samarinda: Transmigration Area Development Project.

Leighton, Mark and David Peart (1990). Research on Enrichment Planting for Forest and Conservation Management. Paper presented at the International Conference on

Forest Biology and Conservation in Borneo (July 30 - August 3), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Mackie, Cynthia (1984). The Lessons behind East Kalimantan's Forest Fires. Borneo Research Bulletin 16(2):63-74.

(1986a) The Landscape Ecology of Traditional Shifting Cultivation in an Upland Bornean Rainforest. Impact of Man's Activities on Tropical Upland Forest Ecosystems. pp. 425-464.

(1986b) Disturbance and Succession Resulting from Shifting Cultivation in an Upland Rainforest in Indonesian Borneo. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms, Int'l. Doctoral dissertation, Human Ecology, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey (New Brunswick).

(1991). Lessons from the Fallow Forests of the Apo Kayan Plateau. Paper presented at the Workshop on Interactions of People and Forests in Kalimantan, New York Botanical Garden, 21-23 July.

Massing, Andreas (1980). Baseline Survey: Kecamatan Muara Wahau. Internal TAD report, Samarinda, East Kalimantan.

Mayer, J. H. (1989). Socioeconomic Aspects of the Forest Fire 1982-83 and the Relation of Local Communities towards Forestry and Forest Management. Samarinda, East Kalimantan: Deutsche Forstservice GmbH, FR-Report No. 9.

Michon, G. M. and J. M. Bompard (1987). The Damar Gardens (Shorea javanica) in Sumatera. Proceedings Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps. (A.J.G.H. Kostermans, ed.) Jakarta: UNESCO, pp. 3-17.

Momal, Patrick (1982). Forests for Food. Samarinda, East Kalimantan: TAD Report.

Moniaga, Sandra (1990). The Kenyah Shifting Cultivators Sovereignty and the Indonesian Natural Resource Tenure Law: A Case in Long Segar, Muara Wahau, Kabupaten Kutai, East Kalimantan. Paper presented at the First Extraordinary Session, the Borneo Research Council, 4-9 August, Kuching, Malaysia.

Ngo, Mering T. H. G. (1990). Ambiguity in Property Rights: Lesson from the Kayan of Kalimantan. Paper presented at the Conference on Interactions Between People and Forests of Kalimantan. New York Botanical Garden, New York, 21-23 June.

Partomihardjo, Tukirin, Razali Yusuf, Siti Sunarti, Purwaningsih, Rochadi Abdulhadi, and Kuswata Kartawinata (1987). A Preliminary Note on Gaps in a Lowland Dipterocarp forest in Wanariset, East Kalimantan. Proceedings Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps. (A.J.G.H. Kostermans, ed.) Jakarta: UNESCO, pp. 241-253.

Peluso, Nancy (1983a). Networking in the Commons: a Tragedy for Rattan? Indonesia 35:95-108.

(1983b). Markets and Merchants: The Forest Products Trade of East Kalimantan in Historical Perspective. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Rural Sociology. Ithaca: Cornell University.

(1989). The Role of Non-Timber Forest Products in Shifting Cultivation Communities and Households: Current Knowledge and Prospects for Development. Jakarta: Directorate General of Forest Utilization, Ministry of Forestry, Government of Indonesia and FAO.

Poffenberger, Mark (ed.) 1990. Keepers of the Foresi: Land Management Alternatives in Southeast Asia. West Hartford, Conn: Kumarian Press.

Riswan, S. (1982). Ecological Studies on Primary, Secondary and Experimentally Cleared Mixed Dipterocarp Forest and Kerangas Forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Aberdeen.

Rusydi (1991). From Dry Field Farming Towards Settled Farming: Case of the Dayak Kenyah Tribe, Muara Wahau, East Kalimantan. Report for FAO, Community Forestry Course in Advanced Rapid Rural Appraisal.

Sakuntaladewi, N. and M. Amblani (1989). Investigation of the Steps Needed to Rehabilitate the Areas of East Kalimantan Seriously Affected by Fire. Samarinda, East Kalimantan: Deutsche Forstservice GmbH, FR-Report No. 11.

Sandbukt, Oyvind (1988). Resource Constraints and Relations of Appropriation among Tropical Forest Foragers: The Case of the Sumatran Kubu. Research in Economic Anthropology 10:117-156.

Soedjito, Herwasono (1985). Succession and Nutrient Dynamics Following Shifting Cultivation in Long Sungai Barang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Unbpublished M.Sc. thesis, Rutgers University.

(1988). Beberapa Perbandingan Tumbuhan Pekarangan antara Long Sei Barang dan Long Segar, Kalimantan Timur (A Comparison of Homegarden Plants between Long Sungai Barang and Long Segar, East Kalimantan). Impacts of Human Activities to Plant Communities in East Kalimantan (S. Soemodihardjo, (ed.). Jakarta: Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) - Indonesian National MAB Committee, Contribution No. 49, pp. 37-51.

(1990). Root System of Successional and Old Growth Forest Species and its Roles on Nutrient Dynamics Within a Tropical Rain Forest in Indonesia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

TAD (1982). Rainfall Records, East Kalimantan: Analysis Summaries and Histograms. Samarinda, East Kalimantan: Transmigration Area Development Project/Dinas Pekerjaan Umum.

Vayda, A. P. (1980). Shifting Cultivation and Patch Dynamics in an Upland Forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Funded proposal submitted to the Consortium for the Study of Man's Relationship with the Global Environment.

(1983). Progressive Contextualization: Methods for Research in Human Ecology. Human Ecology 11(3):265-281.

, C. J. P. Colfer, and M. Brotokusumo (1980). Interactions Between People and Forests in East Kalimantan. Impact of Science on Society

30(3):179-190. (also EAPI Reprint No. 13,1981; reprinted in Culture and Conservation: The Human Dimension in Environmental Planning, 1984:211-228).

and Ahmad Sahur (1985). Forest Clearing and Pepper Farming by Bugis Migrants in East Kalimantan: Antecedents and Impacts. Indonesia 39:93-109.

Warner, Katherine (1991) Shifting Cultivators: Local Technical Knowledge and Natural Resource Management in the Humid Tropics. Rome: FAO Community Forestry.

Watson, Greta and Mahrita Willis (1983). Farmers' Knowledge of Plant Protection: A Theoretical and Practical Framework. Paper presented at Workshop on Stable Plant Resistance, Denpasar, Bali (29 Nov. to 2 Dec.).

Weinstock, Joseph (1981). Weighing Environmental Factors as Determinates of Dayak Land Tenure. Borneo Research Bulletin 13(#2):107-113.

and N. T. Vergara (1984). The Land or the Plants: Agricultural Tenure in Agroforestry Systems. Honolulu: Environment and Policy Institute document.

Whitmore, T. C. (1990). An Introduction to Tropical Rain Forests. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Whittier, H. L. (1973) Social Organization and Symbol of Social Differentiation: an Ethnographic Study of the Kenyah Dayak of East Kalimantan (Borneo). Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Wirawan, Nengah (1987). Good Forest within the Burned Forest Area in East Kalimantan. Proceedings Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps. (A.J.G.H. Kostermans, ed.) Jakarta: UNESCO, pp. 413-425.

Woods, Paul (1987). Drought and Fire in Tropical Forests in Sabah - An analysis of Rainfall patterns and Some Ecological Effects. Proceedings Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps. (A.J.G.H. Kostermans, ed.) Jakarta: UNESCO, pp. 367-387.

Zemer, Charles (1990). Legal Options for the Indonesian Forestry Sector. Jakarta: Indonesia Forestry Studies Field Document No. VI-4, Ministry of Forestry and FAO.

Zwirs, Jan (1978). Perpindahan Orang Long Sungai Barang ke Ritan Baru. [The People of Long Sungai Barang's Move to Ritan Baru] Samarinda: Kontak [a Catholic bulletin].

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