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Forests in Turkey are made up of a variety of species based upon differences in local ecological conditions. One key forest species is the Stone Pine, which finds its largest geographical distribution on the Anatolian Peninsula. The region of Kozak in western Anatolia is an important area where Stone Pine trees grow and flourish.

Kozak’s private forests are situated very near to its state forests, and these forests are very well protected, exhibiting a fine model of state-villager cooperation for forest improvement. The inhabitants of Kozak own the lands and work for the development of its Stone Pine forests. After the cadastral studies of the early Turkish Republic, land registrations were given to villagers. Since the 1980s, the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has strived to expand Stone Pine growing areas. Village legal entities are very effective mechanisms in Kozak’s villages, and their lands are rented and afforested on the behalf of these entities.

Better familiarity with and emulation of the Kozak model and its key successful practices could contribute greatly to the establishment of sound natural resource usage systems in other locales. Towards this end, at the outset of the present study a general investigative tour of the region was organized, including visits to natural Stone Pine forests and afforestation areas. In light of the results of this preliminary investigation, certain villages were identified as sites for further field study.

Beside Kozak’s socioeconomic structure, the present case study also examined its service sector, education, health care, transportation, communications and infrastructure. In addition, the views and ideas of local people were solicited concerning the region’s natural resources as well as such environmental factors as fire and erosion. In addition to Kozak’s own production, the study also examined national and international Stone Pine production in order to better understand the importance of the region’s socioeconomic situation and the Stone Pines’ contribution to the local economy.

2004, 48 pages

Key Words: Kozak, Stone Pine, private forest, afforestation, granite processing.

Note on Land Classifications in This Paper

The following land classifications referred to in this paper can be briefly defined as follows:

Treasury land: This land is defined and registered as private property of the state, which is empowered to grant or sell the right to use it to persons either real or legal.

Registered land: This is private land whose owners enjoy broad rights to use, transfer, donate or designate for inheritance.

2-B land: Named as an abbreviation for Forest Law 6831, Article 2, this is land that used to be forestland but is no longer, and cannot be reclaimed as forestland, but can be considered for other purposes.

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