Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

Appendix 2 - CASE STUDIES

This appendix summarizes the case studies presented at the Second Expert Consultation on Forestry for Community Development held 21-22 June 1977. Six of these were presented by participants (the Sahelian and Senegal papers are summarized jointly), and twelve were combined in the FAO Desk Study. The seventeen papers are arranged alphabetically by country and are detailed below:




Integrated Village Forestry




Forestry for Local Community Development




Legislation and Organization of the Social Afforestation System




Forestry for Community Development in Tiro




Forestry for Community Development (Village Forestry)




Upland Forest and Fodder System on Private Lands




Community Development Programme in the State Forest of East and Central Java




The Shamba System


Republic of Korea


Village Fuelwood Plantation System




Fodder Tree System in an Integrated Rural Development Project




Farm Forestry




Smallholder Tree Farming


The Sahel


Forest/Cattle System




Acacia senegal Gum and Tree Fallow System




Village Afforestation - Dodoma District




Forest Village System




An Approach to Integrated Watershed Management - Mae Sa

1. China - Integrated Village Forestry

Agricultural planning in China is fully integrated with forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, so that maximum benefit can be derived from the land and water resources of the country. The development of agriculture is aimed at strengthening the collective economy of the communes which have extensive financial and administrative autonomy and responsibility for many aspects of economic and social life.

One of the resources China possesses in abundance is manpower. Massive efforts with the involvement of millions of peasants have gone into protection and productive afforestation, dune fixation, shelterbelts, catchment afforestation, dyke consolidation, farm woodlots and scattered trees. Mass approach is adopted even in research activities.

The combination of widespread education and the steady accumulation of visible benefits has helped to develop the spirit of mass participation by the people. This is, in effect, a manifestation of the spirit of self-reliance and the desire for action. Massive activity also is part of the class struggle reflecting the advantages of a communal society and feelings of shared interest with benefits reaching not just the few but the community as a whole. This is the main motivation for mass participation.

The underlying technical principle in China is rational use of land for agriculture, forestry and related activities with the object of maximizing productivity. The following systems are employed:

- types of ‘taungya plantation’ with inter-row cropping of such crops as melons, cassava, groundnut, ginger and soyabeans;

- raising of fodder crops and grazing under forests;

- growing of non-timber forests using food, fodder, medicinal and oil trees and other economic crops such as walnut, chestnut, fig, camphor, tea oil, tung oil and bamboo;

- ‘four around’ forestry, around houses, villages, along roads and waterways using such fast-growing trees as poplars, willows, pines, firs, eucalypts, and other types of vegetation such as bamboo;

- forestry farms with the primary objective of timber production, which often have subsidiary activities yielding minor products such as medicinal plants, mushrooms or basket fibres.

In all of the forest systems, state policy and wood scarcity ensures complete utilization of the forest resources as timber, pulpwood, fuel and even prunings are salvaged for fuel or compost. Multiple use is extended to forest nurseries, where pig rearing or vegetable growing is associated with raising tree seedlings (in Chanku Tai nursery, edible Chinese cabbage was grown at the edges of seedbeds).

Mass participation in forestry by communes is fundamental to local forestry. Article 3 of the Forest Regulations of 1963 states:

‘Revolutionary committees at the various levels must strengthen propaganda and education in order to promote forest consciousness and forest education and mobilize the masses to properly protect forests and trees.’

Most of the plantation techniques employed are labour intensive. Professional foresters and technicians provide guidance to men and women engaged in afforestation and logging. Forest research also provides a backing up service. Aspects of silvicultural management are the responsibility of ‘professional teams’.

Regional forestry bureaux are directly involved in communal forestry. The regional forestry bureau of Tailin, for instance, controls 31 production units in 11 forest farms, and a full infrastructure organization. The bureau is responsible for providing such social services as health, education, recreation and shopping facilities.

One of the 11 forest farms, of some 3 000 ha, provides employment for some 48 people, including teachers, doctors and maintenance workers. The farm facilities include housing, schooling, bath houses, clinic and a dormitory for working middle school graduates.

Reports on forestry in China give a generally favourable impression of rapid and dynamic forest development and of enthusiastic commitment to forestry by the people and leaders at village or commune level.

Integration of forestry and agriculture, which has occurred at all levels in China, has had a positive impact. A shelterbelt project, for instance, in the northwest, 1 500 tan long by 12 m wide, was executed in two seasons by some 700 000 farmers from nearby communes. In Fu Kou county, from 1958 to 1975, 74 million or some 140 trees per head of population had been planted and some 10 000 ha of windbreaks were established. Between 1970 and 197? thinning yields in the county contributed to the construction of 80 000 housing units. In Min Chin county 30 000 ha of sand dune planting and shelterbelts doubled food production per unit area over a protected area of 150 000 ha. In Chouchou county extensive forestry programmes, including planting 16 Million trees in ‘four around’ systems, were closely associated with the doubling of agricultural yields over a ten-year period.

Key Factors

- The complete integration of forestry with agriculture in the broadest sense;

- The ability to motivate the people and develop a strong national and communal commitment to create and conserve forests as part of an integrated agricultural programme;

- The commitment of the State to forest and agricultural development;

- That despite initial disappointing plantation results, the motivation and enthusiasm of the people is such that, employing improved techniques, they were able to continue developing planting programmes without any major check.

2. Colombia - Forestry for Local Community Development

Forestry activities could become one of the most important possibilities in generating direct employment in rural areas and assisting employment in urban areas. Until new the main forestry activities have not been integrated into the rural development process though there has been some community participation in forestry work both in the agriculture dominated lands and in the forest areas.

Examples in the agricultural areas include:

a) The growing of Inga spp as shade for coffee, on which many small farmers have been dependent for their living for more than a century. This species also provides fuelwood, increases soil fertility and assists in preventing erosion on high steep areas. Diversification in the coffee producing areas by planting cypress, pines and Cordia spp either in areas not suitable for coffee or as shade trees with coffee. Some 3 100 ha have been established under a special coffee based diversification fund, one of the objectives being to satisfy the fuelwood and charcoal needs of the rural communities. An interesting example of diversification for watershed protection may be found in the Rio Blanco watershed where plantations of Alnus jorullensis are combined with Kikuyu grass.

b) A form of agrisilviculture in the Pacific Coast region in which private farmers plant trees in pastures, and cacao and banana plantations. The main trees are cedar and Cordia spp and are planted at some 200 per hectare. The tree seedlings and technical assistance are provided free of charge by a private lumber company, which requires that the trees be correctly planted and maintained. The trees are the farmer’s property, but it is probable that they will be Bold to the lumber company for timber.

c) The INDERENA (National Institute for Natural Renewable Resources and Environment)/WFP (World Food Programme) reforestation project in Ayapel aims to establish fast-growing species such as eucalypts. People working in the plantations received food in addition to wages. Some 1 860 ha were established over 5 years, which represented only 20 percent of the target planting area. The main constraint was land availability, as there was considerable pressure for grazing land.

d) An Integrated Rural Development (IRD) programme was set up to improve rural incomes by such measures as improved agriculture, better marketing facilities and improved infrastructure. The forestry components are small and on private land and involved reforestation on small farms. Farmers were granted credit for such operations. Other forestry components included the creation of protective forests and the establishing of productive forestry plantations. The programme also provided technical assistance in the form of plantations. The programme also provided technical assistance in the form of research, surveys and the setting up of demonstration plots. The programme aims to establish over 10 000 ha of plantation in seven different regions over the next 5 years.

Examples of community participation in the management of forest areas include:

e) An integrated project for development of community forestry (PRIBOCO), which was initiated in 1976, is based on a tradition of communal work and has a recognized legal base. PRIBOCO attempts to link rural communities with the conservation and development of forestry, wildlife and fishery resources. INDERENA provides technical services and physical inputs with the following main objectives: (i) increasing family income by employment; (ii) reducing agricultural pressure, on forest reserves; (iii) integrated management of resources, with particular attention being paid to marginal areas. Programmes are implemented through communities to whom INDERENA pays a planting and maintenance subsidy. In relation to forestry, community inputs are labour, tools and land whilst the agency contributes nurseries, seedlings, technical assistance, incentive payments and work supervision. Funds resulting from harvesting are evenly shared between the community and the agency. INDERENA cash is funded to continue further programmes. Projects are selected on the basis of those having the soundest physical and social possibilities for implementation, and a number are sited in areas where forests are being destroyed by agricultural activities.

f) Development of agrisilvicultural systems in the wet regions under CONIF (National Corporation for Forestry Research and Development) and the Matia Mulumba Institute cover five community projects. The combined agricultural/forestry activities are programmed to produce steady annual incomes, and dominant crops include timber trees, fruit trees, palms and bamboo. Social and resource surveys are carried out and research is an essential element of each project.

g) The colonization project in the Amazonian watershed attempts to reduce the harmful effects of uncontrolled settlement. Phase I of the project aimed to resettle 4 500 farmers by granting secure land titles, supervised credit, roading, schools, health services and technical extension. Phase II has continued the programme since 1975 and particularly attempts to implement a programme of natural resource utilization and conservation. The watershed forms three main zones, the mountains where protection is necessary, the foothills which are allocated for grazing but where some protection is necessary, and the jungles of Caquéta where shifting cultivation is destroying forest cover. Extensive forestry programmes and research are required as part of an integrated programme to reduce the problems in the different zones.

3. Ecuador - Legislation and Organization of the Social Afforestation System

The Ecuadorian social afforestation system aims to develop local forestry and, where possible, to involve local communities. There is only very limited information available on the programme, and this indicates that some 6 000 to 8 000 ha of plantation were established between 1965 and 1974. The main reasons for devising the programme were to protect natural resources, to create opportunities for permanent and seasonal employment, and to provide additional sources of income for rural populations.

The ‘Social Afforestation System’ was established by Presidential Decree in 1964. The Decree contained the following articles among others:

'Art. I Reforestation of idle lands suitable for forestry is of national interest. Reforestation will take place through the Social Reforestation System, that is the formation of forests in which the workers participate as joint owners.

Art. 3 For the purpose of this Law, the following are considered lands suitable for forestry:

a) Those which should have forest cover to protect natural resources.
b) Those idle lands which are not adequate for agriculture or artificial pastures, but which may considerably increase production by the establishment of forest plantations.

Art. 5 The owners of lands suitable for forestry shall be obliged to afforest such lands, employing one of the following systems, in this order of priority:

a) Through the Social Afforestation System.

b) On their own account, under terms and conditions specified by the Ministry of Development.

c) At the expense of the Ministry of Development.’

The law implicitly refers to different possible contracts and designates the responsibilities of and the benefits to the contracting parties. After promulgation of the law, the Forest Service implemented afforestation through ‘contratos’, ‘consorcios’ or ‘cooperatives’, which terms are defined as follows:

‘Contratos’ - The landowner provides land and pays the Forest Service the costs of planting. The entire planting operation is the responsibility of the Forest Service, but the plantation and its produce belong to the landowner.

‘Consorcios’ - Planting is carried out by the Forest Service but the landowner contributes no funds, providing only the land. The distribution of yield is 30 percent to the landowner and 70 percent to the Forest Service.

‘Cooperatives’ - Planting is carried out on private land belonging either to an individual or to a cooperative. All labour is provided by members of a cooperative and the Forest Service provides supervision and planting stock. Future yields are divided 25 percent to the landowner, 65 percent to the cooperative and 10 percent to the Forest Service. If the cooperative is also the landowner it consequently receives 90 percent.

After initial success, there are recent indications that the programme has lost some impetus. It is suggested that this is due to lack of trained personnel and leadership for organization and administration of the system, logistic problems created by the diffuse nature of the small land holdings and too ambitious a spread of activities by the Forest Service in promoting the system nationally, and inadequate financial resources to provide incentives for community participation.

Despite these constraints, however, with some foreign aid inputs, 6 000-8 000 ha of forest plantations have been established. What has been achieved may, to some degree, be attributed to the following factors:

- pertinent forest legislation;

- a traditional and deeply rooted custom prevailing since Inca times, called ‘minga’, which consists of voluntary unpaid work provided by the members of a community;

- willingness of the Forest Administration to promote social afforestation systems;

- land availability, both denuded and in process of accelerated erosion;

- availability of a few species, mainly eucalypts, suitable for the range of climatic and soil conditions in the country;

- foreign aid to provide incentives to the communities.

4. Ethiopia - Forestry for Community Development in Tiro

This pilot project is very much in the initial stages and full implementation lies in the future. The Tiro Subworeda comprises a mountainous valley with a population of 15 000. The people are mainly Oromo who have been sedentary agriculturists in the area since the nineteenth century. Deforestation is prevalent, but Tiro Forest of 5 000 ha of mainly Juniperus procera and Podocarpus gracilis remains. A 50 km all-weather road has been constructed to allow logging of this forest. The road has had some community inputs and is associated with the forestry project. There are local shortages of fuelwood and poles, but it is considered that the situation will continue to worsen over the years.

Prior to the 1974 revolution there were extensive farm owner occupiers, but since then all land is vested in the state. Many of the former owned cattle, sheep and goats. The land-use pattern in the valley has not been studied. The main aspirations of the people arc reported to be for clinics, schools and employment. The objectives are:

- to initiate and encourage sustained self-reliance in forestry within the context of rural development;

- to test and evaluate a methodology for rural development in Ethiopia.

Land-use and wood-use surveys are preliminary requirements. It is envisaged that 5-40 ha blocks will be available on steep slopes; 1-5 ha blocks will constitute minor areas, and 0.1-1.5 ha areas around dwellings. As only an initial 1 ha is planned for development, no technical details are given.

The State Forest Development Agency (FWDA) provides the main management and technical inputs. Within the project area there are 14 Peasant Associations (PAs) who elect a representative committee. All land is nationalized but the people have rights of utilisation. The PAs control land and labour. Forests over 80 ha in area are state forests controlled by the FWDA; forests of less than 80 ha are generally classified as for the community and are controlled by the PA. The project is carrying out social studies to understand the local population’s attitude to forestry.

The PA contributes land, labour and community organization. The FWDA contributes technology, seedlings, training, transportation and tools. All of the material benefits are intended to accrue to the community and the state benefits from environmental effects.

The project is at too early a stage for any achievements to be recorded.

5. India - Forestry for Community Development (Village Forestry)

Historical customary rights to forest produce are discussed and it is noted that these were vested in basic village units. The past intensive forest reservation programme is seen as a natural consequence of agricultural pressure on forest lands. Forest destruction has intensified in recent years partly as a reaction to freedom and as an assertion of rights but also due to population growth, over-exploitation of resources and diminishing forest areas. Communal rights have tended to be misused and shortage of productive community forests is sufficiently critical as to be a national not a local problem.

Examples of approaches to community forestry are given. The destruction of traditional societies, more accelerated in recent times, had made it difficult to maintain successful local organizations. Even in northeast India where tribal culture still persists, Village Councils have been unable to control harmful shifting cultivation. In the Punjab it was thought that a programme of planting roadsides, canal banks and wastelands was uneconomic, but when financial returns and benefits were assessed it was found to be profitable and the programme was extended. Farm forestry, which would be a natural development consequence of wood shortage, has been constrained by agricultural and forestry conflicts, and the peasant farmers dedicated priority to agriculture. In Dinajpur, however, boundary planting of a light crowned tree (Dalbergia sissoo) has been successfully carried out, as has the planting of Casuarina on sandy soils in south India.

The effect of higher per caput urban fuel consumption on forest resources is discussed. Increased oil costs have affected this issue and such alternative fuels as gas and soft coke are expensive possibilities. For rural areas, the initial development of methane gas from organic wastes may prove a useful alternative to fuelwood.

In an attempt to improve local forests, legal limitations were put on the use of the forest, whilst conserving local rights. The legal status of local forests was centralized for national decision-making, and removed from the local arena where it was often difficult to make the necessary progress in forestry. The application of cheap individual forest licence rates tended to be abused by exploitation for sale. The employment of local people in improving degraded forests met with some modest success. Clearing of forests for agriculture is a major problem and sometimes this approach was used as a subterfuge to exploit timber.

The National Commission for Agriculture has stressed the need for more intensive use of forest land. A national programme is being developed on a sound land-use base. The rate of forest deterioration, however, puts a constraint on the time available to effect meaningful programmes. Customary leadership at community level is rare, yet leadership, either customary or statutory, is essential for implementing programmes. Local government is based on a three tier elected Panchayat System, at village, area and district levels. Whilst the Panchayat is responsible for village forests, such elected bodies tend more towards immediate problems with short-term solutions rather than long-term forestry projects. The Panchayats have experienced great difficulty in attempting to control the use of forests.

Part-time forest employment of people formerly living on forest pilfering has a beneficial effect. The organizing of collection of minor forest products on an individual basis, rather than on a contractual basis, has increased community benefits. The setting up of purchasing centres paying fair prices improves cash crop possibilities. ‘Taungya’ by making fuller use of land can constitute a benefit, as can full employment in large-scale plantation projects.

Community participation in village forestry has not, in general, been successful. While it is accepted that state forestry programmes cannot provide for all local needs, responsibility for village forests has been assumed by the forest department which undertakes plantation planting and maintenance, and the usufruct is shared between the forest department and the Village Panchayats. The causes of failure are not analysed, but by implication, the main faults are attributed to communities, but the following may be contributory:

- poor institutional framework;
- lack of forestry traditions and lack of traditional organisation;
- incentives insufficient to encourage participation;
- initial government inputs and planning inadequate.

Despite these difficulties, farm forestry is being promoted at the national level. In Uttar Pradesh there are signs that communities wish to participate in local forestry. The Forest Department is looking for ways to diversity forestry and create more benefits for local communities.

6. Indonesia - Upland Forest and Fodder System on Private Lands

The Solo River System is the largest in Java. Like in many other parts of the island, erosion and flooding are widespread in the Solo basin and have reached such a critical stage that more than 100 000 ha have been virtually abandoned for agriculture in the Upper Solo area alone. There, the intensive population pressure on the land is estimated at 870/km and is increasing at a rapid pace. Farm income is low and the great majority of the rural population are subsistence farmers. Degradation of natural resources and population growth are anticipated to continue at such a rate that if no drastic measures are taken, the production of food energy in one sub-basin of the Upper Solo will drop from 93 percent of acceptable nutritional requirements at present to 36 percent in 40 years.

Realizing the need for soil and water conservation measures, the Government of Indonesia set up in 1973 a multidisciplinary project to study the deterioration of watershed resources, develop remedial measures, demonstrate these techniques in pilot areas, develop planning procedures and make recommendations for strengthening the administrative machinery. Substantial food inputs from WFP, fertilizer from FFHC and technical advice from UNDP/FAO have been provided.

Reforestation is seen as an important component of a comprehensive watershed management programme. Pour forest systems are proposed:

i) permanent protection forest on state-owned forest land;

ii) permanent protection forest on private land along riverbanks;

iii) temporary soil regeneration plantations on private land, critically eroded and nearly abandoned, below 50 percent slope, which after one or two forest rotations will be returned to agricultural use;

iv) permanent protection/production forest on private land over 50 percent slope (as the local population often depend solely on that land for their survival, a silvipastoral system has been developed comprising trees, grass and animals, the grass/animal component providing the land operator with a yearly income almost immediately after forest establishment. Tree spacing is 2 m × 2 m, aiming at early canopy closure. The choice of tree species depends mainly on climate, particularly rainfall, and elevation, and the main species are Pinus merkusii interplanted with Albizia falcataria, or Eucalyptus alba. Pines are given no fertilizer as Albizia, a legume, is included to improve the fixation and recycling of nutrients. Eucalyptus is fertilized in the first two years for good establishment. The estimated rotation is 30 years for the pine, etc., system, Albizia being clear-cut in year fifteen and pine being tapped for resin from year ten. On other sites, the Eucalyptus/grass system is managed as a coppice stand on a 10-year rotation.

Underplanting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) is carried out at 0.80 m × 0.80 m. The elephant grass density is increased by the farmer by planting cuttings in the first two years and full production of 30 to 60 t/ha/yr, depending upon site condition, is attained in year three. The grass crop requires 200 kg/ha of urea. A financial compensation is provided, sufficient to maintain the owner and his family during these three years. This system would allow the farmer to raise at the stable 1.5 to 3.0 cattle per hectare (zero grazing) and to generate an adequate and steady income from year four.

The Pinus/Albizia/grass system would employ two men on a full-time basis per hectare while the Eucalyptus/grass system would employ one man per hectare continuously. Estimated I.R.R. for the pine/Albizia/grass/cattle system varies from 16 to 21 percent and for the Eucalyptus/grass/cattle system 13 to 14 percent, depending upon site conditions.

The silvipastoral component on private lands is at the recommendation and pilot stage only, no single organization exists to execute a large-scale scheme. Since 1974, some 300 ha have been planted in four sub-watersheds.

Besides forest or silvipastoral systems, the Upper Solo project is also envisaging to improve the traditional homegardens where multi-storied and multipurpose vegetation already prevails and forms from tine immemorial a quite stable ecological system. This concept, still partly on the drawing board, would consist of rationalizing the production of annual food and cash crops, establishing in each garden a fruit tree section and a fuelwood species section and building a small pond for seasonal fish culture. The aim is to improve soil conservation practices and the diet of the local population, to increase farm income through the sale of production surplus, to provide badly needed fire wood and therefore to prevent over-exploitation and illegal tree cuttings in the forest.

Key factors:

The pilot stage of the reforestation and silvipastoral activities have pointed up the need for credit for cattle, and for credit for fodder crops in the Government fertilizer credit programme; for diversification and intensification of extension and education programmes to ensure understanding on the part of the farmers; for participation of the population at the planning stage, and by farmers in the improvements made by the project on their own land; and for some of the support to be paid in cash, which has more incentive value than food, future:

This experience points to the key factors for the success of the programme in the future:

i) to apply a well-defined multidisciplinary approach to comprehensive watershed management with forestry as one of the many components;

ii) to create a single organization for planning and supervision of, and continuing technical assistance to, watershed management programmes and, at the execution stage, to develop effective operational linkages between the various branches of the Government machinery to ensure the timely delivery of complementary inputs, particularly credit, fertilizers, extension and training;

iii) to secure the people’s active participation, from planning to execution and management, so as to ensure a self-propelling development process in the local community.

7. Indonesia - Community Development Programme in the State Forest of East and Central Java

The forest area covering almost 2 million ha in East and Central Java is managed by the State Forest Corporation, Perum Perhutani. The forests are mainly planted with teak which covers some 845 000 ha. The area enjoys an extensive infrastructure. An important feature of the area is a population density of 570 persons/km2, which puts some pressure on land and the forest areas. One of the aims of Perhutani is to improve the life of people in the vicinity of the forest in an effort to reduce demands on forest land. The families are close knit and there is significant social ranking and a particular respect for elders. Whole family units assist in harvesting agricultural crops. Perhutani employs an extensive labour force. The planned programme to improve community life is mainly directed at increased production through agrisilvicultural systems. The main system is ‘tumpangsari’ (taungya) combining food production and planting of forest trees, mainly teak. A further system involves raising grass fodder under teak, with the fodder used for a zero grazing cattle fattening programme. Other projects involve the growing of red kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) fuelwood belts, to provide firewood for industry and communities. Pilot projects in beekeeping and sericulture have also been introduced recently.

The main objectives are firstly conservation of the forest resources and secondly raising the standard of living of the local community by increasing food production from forest land by using agrisilvicultural systems. This latter objective aims at having an annual programme of 50 000 ha of taungya plantation by 1978/79, as well as establishing 10 000 ha by other plantation methods.

The main tree species is teak planted at 3 × 1 m, and the silviculture of this tree is well known and techniques are well established. The ‘taungya’ system which is restricted to comparatively fertile flat or gently sloping sites is also well established, but improved agricultural crop varieties and fertilizers have increased yields threefold. The fertilizer applications also appear to have increased teak growth rates.

In 1973 Perhutani began investigating the productivity of elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, under teak, mahogany and pine plantations in the forest area. The grass is being sold to farmers and no cattle are allowed to graze in the forest.

The Pennisetum fodder grass is productive for 4/5 years and can be cut 10-11 times per year if irrigated, giving up to 150 t wet grass/ha/yr and up to 75 t rainfed. Average yields of 60 t/ha/yr are expected.

All activities are controlled, organized and take place on state-owned forest land managed by Perhutani, which provides a number of inputs:

- loans for fertilizers or cattle,

- improved non-teak wooden housing in temporary (5-6 year) forest camps with the houses being dismantled and given to labourers after 6 years,

- social inputs including health facilities,

- training and extension for forest workers and farmers.

The participants in the scheme contribute their labour and in return enjoy increased incomes from cropping and fodder and the payment of an incentive bonus after 2 years.

Loans and extension allow the development of improved agricultural methods.

Perhutani puts in a range of inputs and the main benefits which accrue are reduced plantation establishment costs, increased tree growth and security from squatter activities.

Most of the projects are at early stages and achievements are slight at this stage. Some 5 000 ha are under intensive taungya cultivation with application of fertilizers, superior seeds, etc., and a rapid rate of development is projected. For grass fodder 881 ha were established by 1976 as were 733 ha of red kaliandra fuelwood. There is a waiting list of people eager to participate in these projects.

Key Factors:

- The main factor is land hunger which allows the extensive development of ‘taungya’ plantation systems.

- The recognition by the forest authority of the need for good public and local relations, by the promotion of a number of projects which will benefit local communities.

- The forest estate has been established for a considerable period, and consequently forest management takes precedence over other factors.

- Inputs and benefits require some quantification to determine the relative return on inputs to the community and forest agency.

8. Kenya - The Shamba System

The Wa Kikuya tribe, finding itself faced with land shortage, readily accepted employment as licensed cultivators under the Forest Department’s Shamba System, the first recording being in 1910.

Since then the number of people employed under the system increased steadily and by 1975 was estimated to be 9 000.

The Wa Kikuyu and some related tribes are industrious agricultural people having a considerable demand for land to cultivate. In 1966 the Forest Department considered that there remained some 140 000 ha of existing forest reserves, mainly in the Kenya highlands, suitable for this system, and the soils are generally productive under agricultural crops.

The main difference between the ‘shamba’ system and many ‘taungya’ systems is the considerable integration of the cultivators into the Forest Department. Under the ‘shamba’ system as organized in the 1960s the resident workman agreed to work for the Forest Department for nine months each year, to clear in his own time the low value cut over indigenous bush cover from a specific area of land (0.4-0.8 ha) each year, to allow the Forest Department to plant trees in the cleared land (the shamba) after 18 months, and to keep, these trees weeded for 3 years. By tradition, the men carry out the initial clearing, but the subsequent ‘shamba’ cultivation is by women.

The Forest Department guaranteed the resident workman nine months of work per year, supplied a house and land for shamba cultivation, assisted in felling large unmerchantable trees during clearing, allowed the growing of annual crops (maize, potatoes, beans, peas and other vegetables) and the pasturing of 15 sheep. The resident worker’s duties included nursery work, planting, weeding, pruning, house and road construction. The produce from the participant’s shamba was considered as part of his emoluments. An assessment made in the 1960s showed that depending on distance from areas of demand and the state of the market, and after providing for his family needs, the surplus agricultural produce could tee worth up to 2.8 times the annual minimum agricultural wage applicable in the area. The apparent savings to the Forest Department, by considering the ‘shamba’ as part of emoluments were to some extent offset by the necessity to employ a labour force large enough to prepare adequate areas of land for reforestation. The surplus ‘shamba’ produce made a significant contribution to national food requirements. In 1962 and 1963 the maize marketed by this 1 percent of the population contributed 6-10 percent of the total smallholder production and it was estimated that potato production formed an even larger proportion of national production. In the mid-sixties, increased agricultural production from smallholdings, created by splitting larger farms, reduced vegetable prices and had an adverse effect on the income from the shamba system.

In 1976 there was a radical change in the system. All the resident forest workers are employed for a full year and have the status of civil service workers. If they wish to cultivate crops they have to rent the land from the Forest Department. This virtual elimination of the ‘shamba’ system has resulted in significantly increased direct establishment costs. It was estimated that of the 9 000 shamba workers, only 6 000 full-time workers were required to meet the labour needs of the plantation programme.

Key Factors:

- Land hunger and the availability of industrious traditional shifting cultivators.

- The facility with which shifting cultivation could be developed into the ‘shamba’ agrisilvicultural system and good fertile soils in forest areas.

- The sharing of agricultural preparation and cultivation between men and women permitted men to take up paid employment for nine months each year.

- Increased government inputs of housing, social services and settled forest villages have assisted in the continuation of the system. On the other hand, the creation of settled communities has created problems of transport as the distance between village and shamba has increased.

9. Republic of Korea - Village Fuelwood Plantation System

The supply of fuelwood in the Republic of Korea is inadequate to meet the demands of the rural population, and loaves, grass and forest litter are collected for fuel. Rice straw, maize stalks and other agricultural residues are also consumed in large quantities. The removal of forest litter has caused erosion and downstream flooding and also the lowering of soil fertility, whilst the burning of agricultural residues deprived individual farmers of a potential source of income and the country of valuable raw materials.

Recognizing the seriousness of the situation, the Government introduced a number of measures in 1973 to strengthen the forest service, make the rural population aware of their own predicament, enforce regulations forbidding disturbance of forest floors and initiate a national reforestation scheme to create village fuelwood plantations through village labour. A national survey was made to determine fuelwood requirements by location, and establish priorities of action.

The village fuelwood plantations come under the Saemaul Movement, which was initiated in 1971 as a nationwide comprehensive self-help programme to improve living conditions in the rural areas, to achieve greater decentralized economic growth and to slow the flow of rural people to the large metropolitan centres.

At the village level, each village has a Saemaul Committee of about 15 elected members who decide on needs and priorities and send requests to District and County Committees. The execution of forestry work is the responsibility of the Village Forestry Association (VFA), part of the Saemaul Movement. The VFA can call on technical guidance from both foresters of the VFA Union and of the Office of Forestry. A government legal requirement affecting availability of private land is that all steep land has to be put under forest cover and most private owners find it convenient to have such an afforestation scheme taken over by the VFA or Government, who fully subsidize seedlings, fertilizers and other materials.

The annual planting rate attained over 40 000 ha in 1975.

Key Factors:

The main feature of this programme is the villagers’ commitment to rural development and the community spirit directed towards improving standards of living and quality of life which has led them to undertake, on a voluntary unpaid basis, a wide range of rural improvement activities, one of which is the establishment of fuelwood plantations. The creation of such plantations is an integral part of the overall Saemaul concept, and the villagers are committed to forestry development through their Village Forestry Associations.

A further positive factor is the Government’s awareness of the demand for fuelwood, requiring urgent control of forest areas and increased development of plantations, and the creation of a policy to upgrade forestry and actively to encourage and support the establishment of fuelwood plantations. This policy, aided by strong and effective supervision, assists in motivating the villagers’ well-disciplined social structure implement community forestry programmes. Relevant legislation has been enacted.

Other important factors:

- Early returns from the plantation system, resulting from a species yielding fuelwood and cash after the first year.

- The existence of a reasonable infrastructure.

- Strong government pressure for over 10 years for small private landowners to give up or afforest non-agricultural land. This has been accepted by landowners and there is little difficulty in securing such marginal hill land of low agricultural potential.

- The technical knowledge of suitable species, site preparation, sound techniques, together with such factors as efficient extension services, particularly through mass communication media.

10. Nepal - Fodder Tree System in an Integrated Rural Development Project

Some 60 percent of the population of Nepal lives in the hills, 30 percent in the Terai and 10 percent in the Himalayas. The national density average is 620/km2 of cultivated land rising to 1 100/km2 in the hills. Estimated per caput GNP is US$ 90-100 and Nepal is classed as one of the least developed nations.

Agricultural development strategy seeks to balance economic growth with income distribution and provide more equitable regional development. It proposes to correct declining agricultural productivity, and control spontaneous settlement in lowland forests by large numbers of marginal farmers from the hills.

As part of this strategy a pilot rural development project has been drawn up to develop part of the hill districts where 29 000 families (a total of 191 000 people) reside, 96 percent of whom farm less than 1.0 ha, with holdings averaging about 0.-3 ha. Only 4 percent of the population is landless. Present farm production in the area is only capable of meeting family subsistence for two-thirds of every year, with the balance being made up by wages from employment outside of the district.

The full rural development project air at intensive agricultural extension, improving crop yields, farmer and staff training, livestock development, improving marketing, improved land use and control of soil erosion, provision of small warehouses and credit, providing health centres and developing village water supplies, reforestation, providing tracks and bridges and improving cottage industries.

Forestry is part of a wide restructuring of the rural economy, which makes it possible to reduce cropping and grazing pressures on land that should be regenerated or replanted to forest cover.

The forestry components of the project are:

- reafforestation for fuel and fodder on government land,
- regeneration and protection of forest areas,
- forest erosion control.

The total forestry programme covers some 8 600 ha over an initial five-year period and all of the functions are interrelated. Fuel and fodder plantations total 2 100 ha, but of this 25 ha blocks of fodder plantation will be sited in each village Panchayat area. Some 6 000 ha of degraded forest would be regenerated by the provision of fencing and guards whilst 470 ha of planting would be sited on bare erosion sites. The forestry programme is to be preceded by a first year survey to determine precise areas for development. All of the forestry programme has a protective function, but apart from the areas designated for specific local production, the protection forests are also expected to yield fuelwood and, more importantly, fodder. There is a large livestock population which, as has been already noted, is highly prized by the village communities and, as a consequence, fodder is a most important forest product. A buffalo will eat up to 7 metric tons of leaves which comprise 41 percent of its feed in a year, and a cow will eat up to 2.5 metric tons, comprising 27 percent of annual feed.

In Nepal, local development programmes are planned and implemented by institutions set up under the Panchayat system which is a structurally integrated four-tier system of administration. Legislation introducing the system was enacted in 1962 and the first election of office bearers was held in 1963. The four levels of this local government system are elected Village Panchayats, District Panchayats, Zonal Panchayats and the National Panchayat. The main aims of the system are to secure grass root level participation in local development and welfare schemes, to make higher levels of government administration responsive to the needs of the people, and to decentralize administration to utilize more fully local resources of men and materials.

To attempt to secure the required level of cooperation and coordination between district Panchayats and technical ministries, they have been put into a secretariat under the control of Chief District Officer (CDO) for local development at district level. The CDO’s function will be to promote the smooth implementation of district development plans and he is also responsible for law and order. When a plan has been approved, the individual components are implemented under the direct supervision of the technical functionnaires of the concerned ministries, but under the overall guidance of the CDO with the support and cooperation of the District Panchayat.

The Nepalese Government has recognized the need for community involvement in forestry. The recent 1976 policy provides for the vesting of responsibility in the local community for small woodland areas in agricultural zones together with rights to produce from these areas. Forestry development will be carried out by the forest department with the cooperation of District and Village Panchayats.

Key Factors:

As this analysis is based mainly on a pre-project appraisal, the identification of key factors must be conceptual rather than actual.

- That forestry as part of an integrated rural development programme could contribute to raising the standard of nutrition of the local community from below subsistence level.

- Realisation of the importance of forestry, to the extent of transferring cultivated land to forestry by increasing agricultural yields using improved methods on the remaining farmlands.

- The recognition that not only community production forests but local protection forests should make some contribution to local needs, provided the main protection function is attained.

- In an area of high livestock population, the established importance of the forests as a valuable source of fodder for supplementary feeding.

- Directing rural development strategy, including that of forestry, through the Panchayat (local government) system so that both planning and implementation are discussed and approved at the village level.

- The recognition that technical weakness in the Panchayat at district level requires to be Bade good by Government and external technical inputs and training.

11. Nigeria - farm Forestry

The problems in three different locations which typified the differences in ecological zonation, peoples and objectives of farm forestry were described in general. The term ‘farm forestry’ was used to mean the raising of forest and fruit trees in private and community lands outside forest reserves. Such trees and wood were owned and managed by the farmer or community, with or without technical, financial or other assistance from Government or non-government agencies but preferably with such assistance. Farm forestry could be practised on farmlands, compounds and unused tracts of community land. Forestry played a further important role in rural development in Nigeria through many other programmes within forest reserves such as taungya, shelterbelts, pulpwood and other plantations and through traditional employment generating activities of exploitation and regeneration.

Three examples where farm forestry was started are cited:

a) Shelterbelt project in Northern Nigeria - This is an area with urgent need of environmental improvement with a low annual rainfall averaging 700 mm. Earlier attempts at establishing some form of shelterbelts had met with mixed success. Seedlings of fruit trees had been distributed free to all interested persons and organizations. By 1976 over 760 000 seedlings had been planted. There was a certain preference for fruit trees since they had dual advantages and were traditionally protected in farmlands by rural communities.

b) Soil erosion control in Eastern Nigeria - This is an area short of wood with a serious erosion problem. The Forestry Services of the two states had been establishing forest plantations through agrisilvicultural methods, whilst recently seedlings of mainly fruit trees had been produced and sold at reduced prices.

c) Rural forestry development project in Western Nigeria - Here, there is a high demand for wood both for domestic and for industrial purposes. The State Forestry Service, in cooperation with the Federal Department of Forestry, was involved in a campaign to encourage rural inhabitants to grow Gmelina arborea and teak for fuelwood, timber, transmission poles and as raw material for a pulp and paper mill. As in the shelterbelt project, seedlings were given free of charge to farmers. Within its first year of operations, 1976, about 700 ha had been planted and over 700 000 tree seedlings had been distributed. In this particular area much initiative had come from the local communities themselves, and the Forest Department concentrated its efforts mainly on extension and public information. The Ministry of Information had helped to disseminate information on the project through television and radio.

It was noted that the availability of markets in nearby large urban areas and wood requiring industries had created particular conditions favourable to farm forestry. Although the primary use of the wood product would be for the farmer himself, any excess to his own needs could easily be sold outside the community thereby providing an additional income.

The need for cooperation between the various ministries involved was recommended. Since this is a forestry project, the centre of activities would be the Forestry Service. However, as resources would have to be developed within the community, inputs by other government organizations would be necessary. The Forestry Service would have an executive role and a coordinating committee of people representing other branches would be established to review periodically the progress made.

12. Philippines - Smallholder Tree Farming

In the late 1960s, in line with government policy and with government financial support, the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP) launched a combined agriculture and tree fanning development plan, firstly to ensure a constant supply of raw material for its pulp mill and secondly to improve the socio-economic position of farmers on the periphery of its forest concessions and at the same time to strengthen its relationship with them. The farmers are generally squatters or poor smallholders who had migrated to the Bislig region of eastern Mindanao from other parts of the Philippines some time previously, and who were cultivating the land in an extensive fashion. Many of them had no title to the land, which was classified as alienable and disposable by Government. When such land has been surveyed by the Bureau of Land, it is open for settling and a claim for legal title of up to 24 ha can be filed after 20 percent of the holding is cultivated. The original land survey subdivided most of these lands into 10 ha units.

Under the tree farming scheme a participating farmer devoted up to 80 percent of his land to growing Albizia falcataria on an eight-year rotation. PICOP provided seedlings (at cost) and technical assistance both for pulpwood production and for the agricultural crops on the remaining 20 percent of its land. The development of the agricultural portion of the farm was given full priority. In 1972 the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP) undertook the financing of credit-worthy farmers. Eligibility for a loan required having title to at least 10 ha of land.

This scheme was expanded in 1974, when the World Bank participated financially. The conditions of entry to the scheme were relaxed; the minimum land holding was reduced to 5 ha; farmers with ten years’ land occupancy who did not have title but who had applied for a homestead lease became eligible; and a grace period of seven years on loan interest and capital repayment was allowed. The other conditions remained as before, with PICOP providing technical assistance, a contractual agreement to buy the wood and setting a minimum price. The farms are sited within a 100 km radius of the pulpmill, which is considered the maximum economic distance for transporting timber and for extending technical assistance.

The average small-holding size is 10 ha, of which 2 ha are utilized for crops and livestock and 8 ha for growing trees. The farm family clears and plants some 4 ha of Albizia falcataria in each of the first two years. Albizia is chosen largely because it is suited to the area, is easy to establish and maintain and the wood is suitable for pulping.

The general topography is gently undulating and generally below 200 m elevation. Soils are typically rich clay loams of limestone origin. Sloping areas are considered marginal for bananas, coconuts or maize but are eminently suitable for Albizia planting.

As the land has been heavily logged, the bushcover is light and clearing is done manually. With a rainfall of 4 830 mm planting can be carried out during most of the year and lining out, staking and digging of planting holes should be done about one week ahead of planting. Spacing is 4 m × 4 m, i.e. 625 seedlings/ha. Seed is collected locally. Seedlings are raised and transported to farms by PICOP who have nurseries of 5 million plant capacity. The potted seedlings are planted and a 50 gm application of NPK fertilizer per seedling is applied. Replanting of failures is carried out as early as possible after planting. Albizia has rapid initial growth and a broad crown and a weeding regime of three spot weedings at one, three and seven months after planting and a blanket weeding at eleven months is usually sufficient to allow establishment. As the species is free from pests and diseases and as fires are rare, no special precautions are necessary.

Although a possibility, thinning regimes have not been introduced. The rotation is eight years and a total average yield of 240 m3/ha is readily attainable. Harvesting is by the farm family labour force supplemented by hired labour and using oxen for extraction. The Albizia regenerates profusely from coppice and unnecessary suckers are removed.

The rate of planting varies with the size of farm. At an early stage it was envisaged that tree planting on a 10 ha farm would be at the rate of 1 ha per annum, but this is no longer considered practical. Sometimes a second application of fertilizer is given seven months after planting.

Calculations made in 1974 indicated that a 5 or 10 ha farm should show a financial rate of return over 20 years of 25 percent and an economic rate of return of about 14 percent.

It is fundamental to the scheme that the farmer should have an assured supply of agricultural produce before commercial tree planting. For this purpose the extension service concentrates on the agricultural development of the participant’s farm in the first instance.

Loans are for 15 years and security is generally a mortgage on the farmland. Interest charged is at the rate of 12 percent and a grace period of up to seven years is allowed before commencing repayment of interest or capital. It is possible to participate in the scheme and enjoy the technical services without taking up a financial loan.

Key Factors:

- The smallholder secures tenure of his land, changing his status from landless to land owner.

- A guaranteed market for the pulpwood at a guaranteed price; a period of monetary recession underlined the importance to the farmer of these guarantees.

- A strong technical extension service which inter alia first ensured that the farmer’s food situation was secure.

- The species grown was well known. Albizia falcataria had been grown successfully in the area for over 15 years and costs and yields had been thoroughly studied.

The provision of finance through loans proved not to be a key factor. The facilities provided by the Corporation proved sufficient to enable the bulk of the participating farmers to proceed with the scheme whilst only the wealthier farmers with large areas took out loans.

13. The Sahel - Forest/Cattle System

The Sahelian zone is a loosely defined area across Africa lying within the 100-600 mm mean annual rainfall limits. The limited rainfall, on particular sites, can produce and support only a limited biomass, so that there is an ecological balance sensitive to biological or climatic stresses. The main domestic demand on the forest is for fuelwood with a lesser demand for poles and lumber. For the bulk of the inhabitants of the region, wood is the sole source of energy for heating and cooking. Population growth over the last 50 years has meant ever-increasing demands on the forests. Some 15 million m3 are currently out and used as fuel each year, constituting some 90 percent of the total timber consumption of the Sahelian countries.

Intensity of demand for wood has increased around new urban concentrations. The areas in the vicinity of large towns have been largely stripped of trees and such deforestation is reaching serious levels. Other areas of extensive deforestation are those in the vicinity of wood-using industries such as drying and smoking fish. In some areas the fuelwood shortage is so great that for part of the year people are reduced to eating uncooked foods.

Forest areas also meet a considerable demand for grazing, much of it uncontrolled and, in certain countries, illegal. The lopping of trees for fodder is a common dry season practice.

The problems of the Sahel are not recent, they have been brought to light periodically in the past and have led to measures, always localized in their application, to alleviate periodic critical situations. Localized interventions, limited to certain sectors, without any overall direction, have frequently given only temporary solutions, and on many occasions have created new and worse problems.

History, population pressure and changing economic and social trends have impelled stock farmers to increase their herds and to grow crops while, of greater consequence, arable farmers have been forced to increase the cultivated area and move the Sahelian agricultural frontier further north. This has resulted in an even wider use of the land in the Sahel without any appreciable improvement in soil productivity.

The disastrous effect of a series of dry years combined with the sharp unforeseen increase in the prices of energy, cereals and modem agricultural inputs during the period’ 1970 to 1975, were of such a scale that they radically disrupted an already changing economic and social life of the population. The drought reduced millet and sorghum production by one-third and cattle herds by 30 percent. The drought, however, merely aggravated the problems which had long been facing the Sahelian countries.

Two projects have been started in the zone. One at N’Djamena in Chad which concerns the regeneration of degraded natural vegetation, and the other in Senegal where the objective is to stabilise sand-dunes to protect the ‘Niajes’, or inter-dune area of the valuable agricultural land. Both are at an early stage but initial results are reported as promising and the demonstration targets have been achieved.

Key Factors:

- The need to consult and cooperate with the local people in carrying out forest programmes for their benefit.

- The economic status of the community is such that their participation is confined to part-time employment.

- Where the ecological balance has been severely damaged, despite local forest needs, protection is paramount.

14. Sudan - Acacia Senegal Gum and Tree Fallow System

Gum arabic has been a known item of trade for over 2 000 years and records of the Sudan gum trade show sales increasing from 126 tons in 1825 to 52 000 tons in 1965 after which exports fell to 42 000 tons in 1970.

Own was originally tapped from wild trees. Subsequently, in areas close to temporary villages or centres of population, the acacia trees were grown and later a system of permanent villages with agriculture employing an Acacia senegal fallow was developed. With recent increases in population, the value of land for cultivation is so great that in certain areas Acacia is forced out of the fallow, as there is insufficient time for the establishment of gum gardens. Apart from affecting gum production, the shortening of the tree crop fallow rotation adversely affects soil fertility and stability, and this can affect food production and the peasant economy. Apart from its value in producing gum as a cash crop, Acacia plays an important function in many other facets of peasant life, for example:

- thorny branches are used for fences or enclosures;

- the trunks are used as house-building poles, or, with the branches, provide firewood or charcoal;

- the trees markedly increase Boil fertility;

- blocks of trees protect the soil from wind erosion;

- small shoots, in leaf or leafless, are a source of fodder for camels and goats;

- when in leaf, the trees provide dense shade for grazing animals;

- the roots are utilized for rope making and for lining wells.

Other than land pressure, adverse factors affecting the tree crop are fire and overgrazing. Fire reduces yields of gum and kills off established trees, whilst overgrazing in the forms of browsing or pollarding has a similar effect but seldom causes tree death.

The peasant family averages an annual income from agriculture of S£ 66 and some gum tapping is economically necessary to supplement this income. In 1966 the average return from gum would represent a 25 to 28 percent addition to this agricultural income.

The sole species is Acacia senegal and its silviculture is widely known and methods of regeneration, growing and utilization are well established. The generally accepted land requirement figure is 25 ha of which one quarter is for food production, one quarter under Acacia from 0-4 years, and one-half under productive Acacia from 5-12 years old. Grazing among the trees is incorporated in the fallow cycle. The rotation should ideally be so arranged that a normal series of age classes is established in the Acacia fallow. Acacia regeneration needs to be supplemented by sowing of seed and a stocking of 600 trees/ha is desirable.

It is the policy of the Government to allow the gum trade to continue on the local basis that has evolved and the main intervention in the last 60 years has been to regularize the system of sales to the benefit of the producer. Government can stimulate production under the ‘Minimum Price Agreement’ by stabilizing or raising prices when market conditions allow. This Agreement, which was introduced in 1962, is the formulation of the gum price structure. The Government reviews prices annually and fixes a minimum auction price to the producer and a minimum export price.

In theory all land is owned by the Government, but in practice individuals have acquired rights over land allotted to them and entitled to the income from such, irrespective of whether they work it themselves or hire it out.

Key Factors:

- The main factor is the strong and continuous demand for gum arabic: The industry is based on a single and well-known species, Acacia senegal.

- With the development of settled agriculture in the Acacia areas, the species has been incorporated into an agricultural system suited to the ecology of the region in which, during the tree fallow period, not only is soil fertility replenished but production of gum is promoted. The local community has shown considerable self-reliance in organizing gum collection and developing the agrisilvicultural system.

- With increasing population and scarcity of water limiting the opening-up of new agricultural land, the ecological status of the agrisilvicultural system has become finely balanced. Any reduction in the period of fallow produces stress in the system, with consequent reduction in gum production and soil fertility. The Government is now taking an active interest in both the gum production and the agricultural system.

15. Tanzania - Village Afforestation, Dodoma District

Community forestry is part of the ‘Ujamaa process’, wherein the state wishes to mobilize all resources towards the elimination of poverty, ignorance and disease. The basic unit is the ‘Ujamaa Village’ and forest policy requires the encouragement and assistance of forestry by local and village organizations. Dodoma District contains some 120 villages with some 500 families in each. The people are mainly farmers and per caput income is 34-45 per annum. There is an average per caput holding of five head of cattle, and this creates considerable pressure for grazing land. Community plantations commenced in 1967, but have been placed on a sounder planned basis since 1973. Fuel and other forest needs are taken from an ever-diminishing natural savanna forest.

The primary objective is to establish local woodlots for fuel and poles for local needs. Other aims include tree planting for soil and water conservation, and to reclaim depleted land.

A preliminary general soil survey was carried out. Some eight tree species are used including Cassia, Eucalyptus, Grevillea, and neem, with eucalypts being the main woodlot trees. Eucalypts are grown on a ten-year rotation with an m.a.i. of 12 m3/ha. Plants are raised in departmental nurseries in polythene pots. The seedlings are transported to villages and villagers carry out planting and tending with technical advice from the Forest Department. Tending has proved a constraint in particular areas.

The project comes under the dual control of the District Commissioner or Party District Secretary who is a political appointee and the District Development Director who is a civil servant. All of the land is state owned. The Forest Department provides technical advice, extension, nurseries and transport for plants. Villagers are trained in forestry practices but no financial incentives are paid. The forestry staff of one professional, two foresters and nineteen others is insufficient for the required programme. The scheme also involves the Ministries of Agriculture, Land and Education.

The community provides labour and the Government provides land, technical services and extension. The main community benefits are:

- fuel and poles,

- increased agricultural production due to reduced erosion and from time saved by not having to travel distances for fuelwood,

- income from sale of surplus products,

- technical knowledge of forestry.

Some 650 ha of plantations were established between 1972 and 1976, and this represents approximately 40 percent of targets. Some of the plantations arc already producing and meeting needs. Some areas have been lost due to insufficient tending, fire or grazing.

Key Factors:

- Government’s sustained commitment to raise the rural standard of living.

- Need for integrated approach to land use to reduce the conflict between agriculture and forestry.

- The ‘Ujamaa process’ has replaced the traditional system with a new ‘non-tribal’ approach, but the development of local forestry appears to require greater extension or incentives to encourage participation.

- The technical requirements for the local woodlots require to be more clearly defined and the number of species is perhaps greater than necessary.

- Community inputs and benefits have not been quantified so it is difficult to convince people that their labours will be adequately rewarded. Failed plots must have an adverse effect on participation.

16. Thailand - Forest Village System

Destruction of forests by shirting cultivation is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northern and northeastern regions. The evolution of a Forest Village System is an attempt to relate the work of forestry and public welfare, to promote rural development, reforestation and sound land-use.

The objectives of the forest village scheme are: a) to attract landless people to establish themselves in forest villages, which offer improved facilities, a better standard of life and greater stability than nomadic life; b) to encourage village people to establish ‘taungya plantations’ to reforest areas of the forest estate which have been degraded by over-exploitation or shifting cultivation; c) to create, in so doing, opportunities for long-term forest employment.

A forest village comprises approximately 100 families and each family unit is allotted 1.6 ha per annum, for clearing and taungya cultivation for 3 years. The scheme and the village programme is supervised by an officer of the Forest Industries Organization (FIO). Other inputs by the Government include the land, tools, social services and infrastructure and a cash bonus of up to US$ 155 per year for a good performance. Besides this cash bonus the forest villagers get some income, which may be up to US$ 500 per year, for the agricultural crops they grow between the forest trees. The programme is assisted by an extension service.

Progress with the forest village scheme, which commenced in 1968, has been gradual, and at no time was it anticipated that there would be rapid development. Taking Mae Moh village as an example, involvement was gradual with 31 families joining during the first four years, 55 families in year five, and 14 families bringing the number up to the planned total of 100 in year six. During this development and settling-in stage it was not possible to meet the annual target of 160 ha of taungya plantation without hiring outside labour to make up area deficiencies. By 1973 the Forest Village System was achieving some 2 000 ha of taungya plantation per year which is well short of the possible rate of 32 000 ha/year, but is a useful beginning.

In 1976 the whole reforestation programme of FIO had some 30 units and trees were planted on an area of 10 600 ha. There were 21 forest villages with 817 families and 4 325 persons. FIO provided 11 permanent primary schools for 886 pupils.

In 1977 35 units of reforestation were under FIO control. These units are expected to increase to 40 in 1978. The projection is that 5 units will be added every year up to 1980.

(One unit of the FIO reforestation programme is a working group for reforestation of 160 ha/yr over the whole area of the rotation of a specific species such as teak. The whole area of a unit for teak would be set at 9 600 ha for a 60-year rotation, and for Parkia spp, at 4 800 ha for a 30-year rotation, etc.).

Key Factors:

- The absorption of shifting cultivators into permanent forest village communities by providing incentives which should improve their standard of living, at the same time providing cash incentives for the development of ‘taungya plantations’ with prospects for long-term employment in forestry.

- The relating of forest village planning to Hill Tribe Welfare Studies which determine, in depth, the needs and possibilities of the local people.

- Teak, the main species planted, is indigenous to Thailand and its silviculture is well defined.

- Adverse features include low income and periodic distributions of cash often causing financial hardship to participants, transport problems as taungya areas become more distant from the village, and the unsatisfied aspirations of the participants to have a permanent farm area of their own. Attempts are being made to eliminate adverse factors through the establishment of resettlement villages of 200-500 family units, provision of 2.4 ha leases for permanent farming and long-term loans to assist house construction costs and initial farming investments. These recommendations take care of the main adverse factors noted, but the provision of farmland creates some conflict between the farm and the taungya plantation for the available cultivators input.

17. Thailand - An Approach to Integrated Watershed Management, Mae Sa

The major problem in this catchment area is the steady and uncontrolled destruction of the protective forest cover. Most of the land belongs to the Crown, and although there are lowland private agricultural areas, no private ownership is allowed in the upland areas. The agricultural activities of the hill farmers, therefore, are technically illegal. Until 1975, hill tribesmen were not allowed to become Thai citizens and since the law was changed in 1975 few have adopted citizenship. Their traditional agriculture includes no concept of inputs to the land to improve conservation and long-term fertility; consequently they show little regard for the land they cultivate.

A project was set up in 1973 to carry out a pilot and demonstration programme of integrated watershed management in the Mae Sa catchment area. The project covered several fields, such as watershed management, horticulture, conservation farming, road construction and maintenance, reforestation, fire control, rural sociology, plus many other secondary activities.

The project carried out detailed surveys of natural and human resources, including land capability classification, a forest inventory and socio-economic surveys. Each of these survey yielded important information but the socio-economic survey showed up a number of factors including different tribal methods of agriculture, and the limitations and misuse of resources. The Meo are practising an extensive and destructive type of clearing at around 1 000 m elevation with upland rice as a subsistence crop and opium as a cash crop. Thai clearing is usually much less intensive, and involves lighter forest and less thorough tree felling. It was found that 30 percent of the Thais and 97 percent of the Meo are landless in that they have no legal ownership of any land.

Following land capability surveys, allocation of land is considered critical if the land-use situation is to be improved, but in practice in a pilot scheme it was found that survey and allocations were a slow process to be carried out on a large scale with limited funds and manpower. The basic pilot land allocation was carried out in one village on the basis of the requirements of the individual farmers, and was of the following order:

i) 0.25 rai (0.04 ha) with less than 35 percent slope for household and garden;

ii) 1 rai (0.16 ha) irrigated or 2 rai (0.32 ha) rainfed or the combined equivalent on less than 35 percent slope for subsistence cropping;

iii) 1 rai (0.16 ha) with less than 85 percent slope and proper soil and conservation measures established for fruit and food tree crops;

iv) 3 rai (0.48 ha) with less than 85 percent slope as a share of communal village woodlots managed under the supervision of the forest officer and the village headman.

It is proposed that a temporary land occupancy certificate be issued for five years and, upon satisfactory performance over this period, a leasehold certificate or ownership title will be issued. Lease rentals will be nominal and transfer will only be possible under strict conditions. To prevent the more undesirable activities of money-lenders, ‘leases’ will not be valid as mortgage securities. In the initial stages, Government will have to arrange low interest loan facilities to finance the participants during the establishment phase. The villagers were kept fully informed of objectives of the land allocation scheme and their agreement to the scheme was secured.

Key Factors:

The project is at an early stage in developing integrated watershed management, but nonetheless sufficient information has been determined for work on a large scale to be advanced. The project has an extensive list of proposals for larger scale operation in the immediate future of which perhaps the most important are those given below:

- The development of sound technical and organizational institutions.

- The carrying out of human and natural resource surveys as a basis for allocating areas to the correct land uses.

- The allocation of land suitable for permanent agriculture to inhabitants of the area who are currently landless and practising shifting cultivation; the provision of technical advice on land layout and permanent agricultural techniques.

- Strict control of sale or transfer of leases or individual land allocations and prohibition of outsiders obtaining land and the development of land speculation.

- Incentives such as compensation for labour inputs and fertilizers to encourage and assist farmers to establish conservation works on their lands.

- The concept of land allocations requires inputs from the participant who should benefit from his ownership and status. The concept also attempts to build up community awareness, by having community woodlots and requiring inputs from the individual to certain community activities.

- The setting up of an area or regional fire control system and organization.

- The setting up of forestry working circles to provide for local demand. Such working circles would probably incorporate community village woodlots as permanent agriculture develops.

- In plantation establishment the standards of post-planting maintenance should be improved.

- The use of taungya plantations and forestry pasture systems should be developed.

Previous Page Top of Page Next Page