Artocarpus heterophyllus

Artocarpus heterophyllusOrigin

South Asia.


Annual rainfall: 1100-2400mm.

Normal temperature range: 16-35 C.

Altitude range: 0 to 1000m.

Seasonal adaptability: Can tolerate 3-4 months dry season.

Soils: pH of 5.0-7.5, deep well drained soils, clay-loams, sandy-loams.

Light requirement: Medium.

Other site limitations: Does not withstand flooding.


Height at maturity: 10-25m.

Diameter at breast height (1.3m) at maturity: 30-60 cm.

Form: Good, straight bole, but branching begins quickly; fruits borne from trunk and branches.

Coppicing ability: Poor.

Growth: Can reach 5 m height in 5 years.

Primary advantages

Fast-growing fruit tree able to grow in a range of climates. Straight-stemmed variety provides good timber and does not shade nearby crops. Generally not prone to disease or pest infestation.

Primary disadvantages

Fruit production decreases after 35-40 years. After 40 years, some holes may develop in the trunk, affecting wood quality.

Products and yields

Fruit: Fruiting starts after about 5 years; earlier for grafted trees. Fruits require several months to mature, yields vary but 8-12 fruits/tree/year is normal for 5-year-old trees. Immature fruits used as vegetable in cooked dishes such as curries.

Wood products: Fuelwood and small timber; 3-5 m3/ ha/yr when grown at a density of 80 stems/ha. Also used to manufacture guitars.

Fuelwood: Good, with wood density of 0.5-0.7 and calorific value of 4600 kcal/kg.

Fodder: Not good, but leaves and fruit rinds usable. Other: Latex and dye. Dye is produced by boiling the sawdust. In Nepal, the root is used to relieve diarrhoea and unripe fruit as a laxative.


From seed. Spacing in plantation is usually 8x8 m or greater.

Seed treatment

Seeds are recalcitrant and cannot be stored long; should be planted when fresh. Store for short periods in airtight plastic bags or in dry sand. Seeds lose viability after 1 month.


Pruning. Rotations are normally 20-30 years, after which fruit production decreases dramatically.

Agroforestry uses

Intercropping in homegarden systems.

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