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1. Abbiw, D. 1987. Personal communication. Director of the herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Discussed the value and use of NTFPs in Ghana. Had extensive discussions about NTFPs of both cultural and economic importance. Discussed the production and trade of dugout canoes, medicinal plants, fruits and leaves, and building materials.

2. Abbiw, D. 1989. Useful plants of Ghana. University of Ghana, Legon, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, England.

An extensive book recording the uses (both past and present) of plants. Examines the products derived from forests and other uncultivated areas. Draws on historic information as well as current field research (interviews and oral histories). The material is arranged by use and includes descriptions of the plants, who uses them and whether they are earmarked for use. Abbiw describes plants used as food, medicines, sources of drinking water, salt substitutes, famine foods, poles and construction materials, furniture, fuelwood, timber, tools (e.g. Celtis sp. for pestles), poisons; those exploited for latex, resin, copal, gum, tannin, dye, and essential oils. And those used in craft enterprises such as basketry, carving, matting, canoe building (primarily undertaken at the site of the felled tree), agricultural implement making (e.g. axes from Burkea africana, hoes of Baphia nitida), musical instrument construction, and soap production. It is not possible to distinguish between current and historic uses, but the extent of descriptive accounts indicates the importance of the resources in peoples’ daily lives.

Abbiw, for example, describes 62 wild fruit species (17 of which are marketed), 70 species used as chewing sticks and 20 species used as binding materials. He includes a chapter on plant-derived medicines (identifies 73 species) describing the plant, the parts of the plant that are used and the methods of use. Treatments of more than 85 ailments are discussed (e.g. hepatitis, earaches ...). The medicinal plants which are exploited for the export (or industrial) market (e.g. Griffonia sp.) are also discussed. In some cases trees valued for their medicinal products are protected by local customs or taboos. For example, Stereospermum kunthianum, a valued medicine tree, is not allowed to be cut, and if it is burned, it is believed to induce leprosy.

3. Abbiw, D. (in progress). Plants and tradition in West Africa. Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

A study on the traditional use (cultural, mystical, symbolic and magical) of plants throughout West Africa. The study relays both historic information and updates from current field research (based on interviews and oral histories). The material is arranged by function rather than plant species. For example, the heading “Death and dying” includes plants which are associated with death, plants used to send or receive messages from the dead, plants associated with burial rites and ceremonies; “Marriage” includes plants believed to protect marriages, plants believed to improve marriages (e.g. a charm of Datura metel is believed to give the patience to tolerate one’s spouse). There are over 50 subject areas described. The material contains a great deal of information on possible “conservation practices” such as the protection of sacred groves and protective taboos.

4. Abosede, A.O. and Akesode F. 1986. Self-medication with Agbo-Jedi in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Research on Ethnomedicine 1(1).

This study illustrates how traditional cures are still commonly used even by those attending modern health care clinics. The piece examines use of Agbo-Jedi, a herbal cure for infant dysentery. Abosede and Akesode surveyed 200 mothers attending a Lagos health clinic and found that 80% of them gave the concoction to their children. Seventy-four percent said they were ministering it to treat dysentery. Forty-seven percent fed it into their children daily as a preventive measure. Agbo-Jedi consists generally of water extracts of leaves, bark and roots (among the common ingredients are camphor, Khaya ivorensis, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Detarium microcarpum, Lophira lanceolata).

5. Addey, J. 1982. Wood carving activities in Kumasi ‘and its suburbs. Thesis (BSc), Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

There is a considerable wood craft industry in the Kumasi region. This study examines the production, economic costs and income-earning potential of this industry. One surveyed village (Ahwia) specialises in wood craft production, all village men are involved in this activity to some extent. It is especially known for its stool carvings. Carvers earn a good living, but production is irregular (about 1300 cedis/month). Thirteen different tree species are carved (67 species are of minor importance). Cedrela odorata is now most commonly used because other preferred species have become difficult to find. Most wood comes from non-forest reserve land (includes an account of the costs for felling and transporting trees from these “stool” lands). The biggest problem is transportation of raw materials (wood), as desired trees are no longer close to the carving centers. Carvers produce religious/ceremonial artifacts as well as general domestic wares (pestles, bowls, utensils).

6. Addo Ashong, F.W. 1987. Personal communication. Director, Forest Products Research Institute, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Discusses research on the use of non-timber forest products in Ghana. Work is being carried out on tannins and adhesives extracted from mangrove species Rhizophora sp. The extracted essential oils of a few species (e.g. Pycnanthus sp.) are used to make soap. The Institute is also conducting research on the woods that were traditionally used to make grain storage containers and ways of treating wood for better pest protection.

7. Adekunle, A.O. 1971. The non-timber forest resources of the high forest areas of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Forestry 1(1): 12-16.

This general descriptive paper evaluates the potential for forest management in production of non-timber forest products. It provides illustrative examples of the myriad of products derived from forests and mangroves of the region. The importance of wildlife, particularily bushmeat, is also discussed. The article includes some quantitative information on the use and production of palm oil and palm wine.

8. Adeola, M.O. and Decker, E. 1987. Wildlife utilization in rural Nigeria. Paper presented at the international Symposium of Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Sponsored by FAD and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, 6-13 October 1987, Harare, Zimbabwe, pp. 512-521.

Nigerian farmers depend on bushmeat (including birds, reptiles and amphibians) for both food and cash income. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of bushmeat utilisation in three different ecological zones (rainforest, deciduous forest and savannah). The study distinguishes between hunters (full-time) and farmers (those who hunt as well as cultivate food or cash crops) and estimates the amounts of bushmeat (by species) they catch in different seasons. It does not distinguish between what is consumed and what is sold in the markets.

An estimated total of 1,320,000 metric tonnes of bushmeat are hunted in the three zones (the larger portion in the savannah region). Of the larger mammals, duiker and bushbuck are most common in the forest zone; a farmer averages 5 per month in the rainy season. Of the smaller game, squirrels, cane and giant rats, bats and porcupines are most common (averaging about 40 animals per month per farmer in the rainy season). Francolins, guinea fowl, lizards and snakes are also fairly common foods.

9. Adewumni, C.O. and Adesogam, E.K. 1983. Anthraquinones and oruwacin isolated from Morinda lucida as possible agents in tascioliasis and schystosomiasis control. In Essien, E. et al (eds.). Proceedings of VISOMP - Fifth International Symposium on Medicinal Plants. Drug Research and Production Unit, University of Ife and Organization of African Unity Ife-Ife, Nigeria, pp. 61-64.

10. Adeyokunnu, T.O. 1981. Women and agriculture in Nigeria. Research Series, U.N.E.C.A. Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Includes a discussion of the types of containers and packaging materials used for marketing agricultural products in different regions of Nigeria. In the West bags and baskets are most common (accounting for 80% of what is used), in the East baskets are most prevalent (43%), followed by bags and bowls. In the North calabashes are most prevalent. Most baskets and some bags are manufactured locally from palm products. Calabash containers are the fruit of the calabash tree. These data serve to illustrate the “service” function of forest derived products.

11. Adjanohoun, E. and Ake Assi, M.L. 1979. Contribution au recensement des plantes médicinales de Côte d’Ivoire. Centre National Floristique, Université d’Abidjan, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

More than 300 plant species are identified with a description of their geographic distribution, and their use by different ethnic groups. Includes an index by disease/treatment of 135 ailments. For example, Rhaphiostylis beninensis is used as a mosquito repellant, Calpocalyx aubrevillei is used as a salt, Opilia celtidifolia is used as a fish toxin, Ricinodendron heudelotii is used as a condiment. Also includes descriptions of the mystical and magical uses for these plants (e.g. to bring stability, give strength, protect against fate and evil, ensure beauty in children).

12. Adjanohoun, E. et al. 1984. Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Gabon. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France.

An ethnobotanic work arranged by plant families. Includes a botanical description, information on ecological distribution, and the medicinal uses for forest plants in Gabon. For example, Plagiostyles africana leaves (a humid forest-tree species) are taken for hepatitis, its crushed bark is used in medico-magical treatments against evil spirits. The book includes a second section with the material arranged by illness. It lists treatments for biological systems (e.g. cardiovascular), symptoms (e.g. anaemia) and magical/mystical approaches. Includes an index on vegetative formations and ecological zones.

13. Adjanohoun, E. et al. 1986. Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Togo. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France.

Describes 348 medicinal plant species used to treat more than 200 illnesses. Material is arranged by plant species, illness, and symptom.

14. Adu-Tutu, M., Afful, Y., Asante-Appiah, K., Lieberman, D., Hall, J.B., and Elvin-Lewis, M. 1979. Chewing stick usage in southern Ghana. Economic Botany 33(3): 320-328.

Notes that 107 species of woody plants are used as chewing sticks. However, these researchers estimate that four species account for 85% of the total consumption in the southern region of Ghana. In this region, chewing sticks are used for dental hygiene by most people. The most common species are Garcinia afzelii and G. epunctata. Several pharmacological studies have shown that these preferred species have anti-bacterial properties which make them effective for fighting cavities.

Chewing sticks are sold regularly in local and urban markets. The study includes a quantitative assessment of the market and consumer preferences for different types of chewing sticks. Compares the extent of purchasing versus home production. This study asserts that chewing stick selection depends primarily on species availability. There are some differences in the preferences of rural and urban consumers, different ethnic groups and different age groups (older people tend to prefer softer products).

15. Agbelusi, E.A. and Afolayan, T.A. 1987. The role of wildlife in the Nigerian economy, in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria, Ikeja, Nigeria (unpublished).

Includes a discussion of the medicinal and mystical uses of wildlife. For example, the horn of a rhino is used to prepare a concoction for treating barrenness in women; the head and legs of the duiker are used in witchcraft to assure a safe childbirth; the head of the giant rat is used to win the love of a woman.

16. Agbor, L.O.N. 1986. Economic assessment of Irvingia gabonensis in Cross River State, Nigeria. MSc. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Examines the uses and markets for Irvingia gabonensis (agbo) whose wood is used to make mortars and pestles and whose fruit and seeds are widely consumed in southern Nigeria. Irvingia seeds are used in soups, adding a desired slimy consistency. The fruits of the sweet variety are consumed raw. This paper examines seasonal consumption (which is higher in the rainy season) and prices (which are lower in the rainy season). People often consume 15-20 fruit at one time. Provides information on the nutritional content of its edible parts.

Discusses the production and marketing of Irvingia sp. products and compares prices in different regions, in different seasons (the bitter variety is more expensive than the sweet). Irvingia may provide an important source of income for many farmers. Though Agbor finds great variation in the density of irvingia trees in different districts, ranging from an average 87 trees per farmer in Ogoja district to an average two trees per farmer in Ikono district, trees are almost always found on compound farms or on boundary land. Finally, this article discusses the productivity of these fruit trees over time (i.e. number of fruit/year at different tree ages).

17. Ahmed, A.I., Kolo, A.I., Okeke, R., Raid, P.R., and Kinako, P.K.S. 1971. Working Group on the development of other forest products. Report for the Federal Department of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

A general discussion of the importance of non-timber forest products (especifically economically important ones, e.g. gums and tannins) and their potential for development. Notes that for many households, local production facilities provide the main source for products and a source of income. Includes a list of commonly used species and their uses.

18. Ajayi, S.S. 1971. Wildlife as a source of protein in Nigeria: some priorities for development. Nigerian Field 36(3): 115-120.

A general discussion of bushmeat’s role in Nigerians’ diets. Estimates that bushmeat supplies an average 20% of the animal protein consumed in rural Nigeria (extracted from the 1967 rural economic survey). Eighty percent of the population in the South consumes bushmeat. In 1969, the bushmeat trade in southern Nigeria was valued at 9 million pounds sterling (compared with 11 million for domestic meat). Snails are the most popular “meats” consumed. Their consumption is widespread throughout the southern region. Includes a brief discussion of the management for cane rat, guinea fowl and fish.

19. Ajayi, S.S. 1978. Pattern of bushmeat production, preservation and marketing in West Africa. Nigerian Journal of Forestry 8(1): 48-52.

Describes the traditional and modern hunting techniques employed in the West African region: trapping, snaring, individual hunting with guns, community hunting for commercial purposes, communal hunting for traditional festivals and hunting by urban dwellers.

Examines the structure of the bushmeat market. Most bushmeat hunters (producers) live in rural areas. They either sell the meat fresh, locally, or they give it to their wives to preserve (smoke dry) and sell to village collectors who in turn sell the produce to urban retail traders. In some cases rural producers sell their meat fresh to urban consumers or at the roadside. In light of the ever-increasing exploitation of wildlife the author suggests some possible conservation strategies geared towards meeting the demand for bushmeat; he suggests that the development of farmland wildlife management techniques could help supply farmers with adequate bushmeat and a source of income.

20. Ajayi, S.S. 1979. Utilization of forest wildlife in West Africa. Paper prepared for the FAO Forestry Department. FO:Misc./79/26 (unpublished).

An excellent review of the uses of wildlife throughout West Africa. Includes information on the animals used for food and other products (e.g. skins); the patterns of bushmeat production and marketing; the importance of bushmeat to regional and national economies; and the wild animal resources throughout the region. Includes data on the nutrient composition of different wild animal meats. Also discusses management techniques for bushmeat production.

21. Ajayi, S.S. and Olawoye, O.O. 1974. Some indications of the social acceptance of the African giant rat (Crycetomys gambianus) in southern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Forestry 4(1): 36-41.

Presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in the southern region of Nigeria. Finds that 72% of a wide cross section of the study communities (both urban and rural) consume giant rat. It is more commonly accepted among the poor. This may be a reflection of availability (of rat meat) rather than preference as those in the lower income brackets reside in rural areas. Statistically analyses results.

22. Ajayi, S.S. and Tewe, O. 1983. A quantitative assessment of wildlife and their nutritive value as a source of food in Nigeria. In Akinyele, L., and Atinmo, T., (eds.) Nutrition and Food Policy in Nigeria. National institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 138-148.

Reviews past research on the consumption of bushmeat in Nigeria. Presents quantitative data on bushmeat consumption: on average consumption has increased from 10.1 g per capita in 1968 (223,300 MT/year) to 13.2 g per capita in 1980 (421,000 MT/year), compared with 9.1 g/capita of beef in 1968 and 13.1 g/capita in 1980. Consumption of fish has remained considerably higher than that of meat (approximately four times more than bushmeat consumption).

Palm wine and palm oil are also major foods: in 1968 consumption of palm wine was 59.4 g/capita and in 1980 it was 66.5 g/capita (1,124,000 MT/year); in 1968 consumption of palm oil was 23.4 g/capita while in 1980 it was 26.1 g/capita (or 832,000 MT/year).

23. Ajayi, S.S., Tewe, O., Moriarty, C. and Awesu, M.O.A. 1978. Observations on the biology, and nutritive value of the African giant snail (Archachatina marginata). East African Wildlife Journal 16:85-95.

Discusses the giant snail’s biology and its potential for domestication. Includes a discussion of its feeding and breeding habits. Snails are as nutritious as other meats; they are a good source of protein, low in fat, and exceptionally high in iron (12.2 mg/100 g) and calcium.

24. Akande, M. 1979. Bushfowl (Francolinus bical carratus) as a pest and a potential source of meat in Nigeria. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Study conducted in southwestern Nigeria where bushfowl is popular and often considered a delicacy (93% of those surveyed like it). It can be found in many rural markets. Cooked, it contains 13% protein and 65% fat. The study discusses the potential for bushfowl management.

25. Ake Assi, M.L. 1980. Les plantes et la thérapie de la stérilité des femmes en Côte d’Ivoire. Miscellaneous Paper No. 19, Landbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Traditional treatments for women’s sterility (it is always the women who are treated for this affliction) are still popular even in educated urban areas of Côte d’Ivoire. This paper provides botanical descriptions of some of the species used in traditional healers’ treatments: Annona senegalensis, Ficus glumosa, Crosspteryx febrifuga, Clerodendrum umbellatum, and Microdesmis puberula.

26. Ake Assi, M.L. 1982. Médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopée: contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques en République Centrafricaine. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique (ACCT), Paris, France.

Describes 90 plant species used for healing 85 different illnesses. Includes botanic description, geographic location, a list of the plants’ uses, and an index arranged by illness. For example, Irvingia grandifolia is a large, moist forest tree species whose crushed bark is used in the treatment of gastroenteritis.

27. Ake Assi, M.L. 1983. Quelques vertus médicinale de Cassia occidentalis en basse Côte d’Ivoire. Bothalia 14 (3 and 4):617-620.

Describes 11 medicinal recipes using Cassia occidentalis in the forest zone of Côte d’Ivoire. Decoctions of leaves and roots are used as diuretics, laxatives, tonics and abortificants. They are also used in treatments for asthma, cataracts, jaundice and kwashiorkor. Describes other plant species used in conjunction with cassia. For example, an extract of the seeds of Xylopia aethiopica and Cassia leaves is used as an eye bath for treating cataracts.

28. Ake Assi, M.L. 1984. Flore de la Côte d’Ivoire: étude descriptive et biogéographique avec quelques notes ethnobotaniques. PhD. Thesis, Faculté des Sciences, Université d’Abidjan, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. (TO be published by Nouvelle Edition Africaine, Paris, France.)

A large work of six volumes organised by plant families. Each entry contains a botanic description, a biogeographic description and notes on plants’ traditional and current uses. Describes plants used in medicinal treatments (e.g. asthma is treated with Pouzolzia guineensis and Anthonotha macrophylla), as foods, for ceremonial and religious practices, to make household items, and in agricultural, fishing and artisanal activities. Contains many useful annexes including a list of species arranged according to their medicinal uses, a list of diseases and their associated plant remedies, and a list of species (114 species) used as foods including a description of the plant parts consumed. Many of the entries include information on the cultural and social uses of plant resources. Information on traditional beliefs associated with specific plants is also included. Species used in religious practices and on social occasions are described. For example, a musical instrument of the Boualé is made with the fruit of Oncoba spinosa and Glyphaea brevis as well as the seed of Entada pursaetha. Cordia platythyrsa is used for making tam-tams. The use of traditional plant dyes is also described. Provides an excellent bibliography. This study provides a wealth of information despite the fact that it is not possible to assess the extent to which the plants are used.

29. Ake Assi, M.L. 1985. Le bananier plantain: son utilisation dans la médecine traditionnelle en Côte d’Ivoire. Proceedings of the third meeting of the International Association for Research on Plantains and Bananas. Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (unpublished).

Describes the use of plantains in traditional medical treatments. For example, its crushed roots, when mixed with water, are taken as a mouthwash against cavities; an extract of fresh roots mixed with salt is used in the treatment of cataracts; the juice of cooked green bananas are taken for incontinence. The fresh leaves of Bidens pilosa, when mixed with the charcoal of the plantain skin are administered to treat dysentery. The ash from the peel, mixed with water and filtered, is used in many medicinal recipes, as well as many traditional sauces.

30. Akinyele, L. and Atinmo, T. (eds.). 1983. Nutrition and food policy in Nigeria. National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (INPSS), Ibadan, Nigeria.

A collection of papers on the food and nutrition situation in Nigeria. Includes papers on the importance and nutritional contribution of bushmeat, as well as chapters on the role of forestry in food supply and national nutrition problems. Notes that bushmeat is an important food for many Nigerians, however, as the demand for bushmeat continues to increase, supplies are dwindling.

31. Amat, B. and Cortadellas, T. 1972. Ngovayaangui: un village du sud Caméroun. Contribution à une étude de la santé en Afrique. Thesis, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France (unpublished).

A thorough village level study in a cocoa producing area, which includes information on traditional hunting and fishing practices, medicines, artisan activities and diet and common collected foods. The piece notes that the most commonly trapped and consumed species are small mammals. Includes a list of species. Commonly collected foods include snails, caterpillars and other insects, palm rats, pangolins, snakes, duikers, palm nuts, Irvingia gabonensis nuts, Dacryodes edulis, mushrooms, Pachylobus edulis fruit, honey and palm wine. Traditional food customs provide most of the meat to the elder men, leaving little animal protein for women and children.

Describes some of the equipment used in off-farm activities such as hunting, fishing and artisanry. Traps and snares are commonly used for hunting in the rainy season. Fishing, which is primarily a woman’s activity, is done using rattan traps, nets, dams, and lines (which men employ). Artisanry which is also done on a part-time basis, informally, is also described as an important source of off-farm income. Production of many items is specialised by family and is passed through generations, with clearly gender-defined production practices.

Describes the traditional values ascribed to particular trees. These are generally associated with healing or magical qualities (see Sections 1.3.2,3). For example, the oven tree, Didelotia africana, is a powerful tree which can only be approached for help with difficult problems (e.g. unemployment, broken marriages); traditional sorcery healing sessions are held in the forest under the tree Disthamonanthus benthamianus. Describes 25 common plant remedies. The crushed bark of Enantia chlorantha is used to stop hemorrhaging, the bark is boiled and used against jaundice; the crushed leaves of Afromomum meleguetta mixed with yam leaves are used to treat toothaches.

32. Amponsah, S. 1978. Survey into the chewstick industry at Kejetia Lorry Station. Thesis (BSc), Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, university of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

A study of the chewing stick trade at one market near Kumasi which reveals that the most common chewing stick species are Garcinia cola and G. afzelii. Chewing stick production involves collectors/fellers (often paid by wholesalers), wholesalers (responsible for transport), and retailers. Generally, men control the wholesale trade of Garcinia afzelii while both women and men are involved in G. cola trade. Women dominate the retail trade for all varieties. Presents quantitative data on the average income earned by different actors (cash earned by retailers compares favourably with the wages earned by unskilled wage labourers). Transport is the main cost in the industry. Products gathered from Forest Reserve land are far cheaper (6 cedis to Forest Service for permit) than those gathered outside reserves (55 cedis paid to stools (communal chiefs) and alcohol to chiefs).

33. Amponsah Agyemang, G. 1980. The use of plants in traditional medical practice in an Ashante village. Thesis (BSc.) Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

This study identifies 105 species of plants that are used medicinally. It describes the plants, the methods and treatments in which they are used. The piece stresses that traditional medicines continue to be important. Half of this Ashante village is Christian, there is no fetish priest in the village, and yet all the villagers who were interviewed, regularly employ traditional plant medicines. In this village most species are used to treat more than one disease. There are generally several treatments for the same disease.

34. Ancey, G. 1967. La zone rurale de Brobo (Côte d’Ivoire) vue à travers son marché hebdomadaire. ORSTOM, Division Science Humaine and Ministère d’Agriculture, Côte d’Ivoire (mimeograph), Paris, France. (Published as L’économie de l’espace rurale de la région Bouaké: un exemple de fonctionnement de marché rurale approximité d’une agglomération urbaine: le cas Brobo 1974. ORSTOM, Travaux et Documents 38:183-201, Paris, France.)

This geographic study of a regional market in southern Côte d’Ivoire includes information on the returns garnered from some important marketed products including: palm wine, palm fruit, wood and fruits and leaves. Palm wine is only marketed by those villagers living within an 8 km radius of the market; 22% of the villages surrounding Brobo produce palm wine for this urban market.

Artisanal products such as baskets and carriers are also sold. The artisanal production tends to be concentrated in certain villages.

35. Andoh, A.K. 1986. The science and romance of selected herbs used in medicine and religious ceremonies. North Scale Institute, San Francisco, USA, 324 pp.

A collection of information on the medicinal and ceremonial use of wild plants by different groups of people around the world. Includes many examples from the Ashante region of Ghana. For example, Chlorophora excelsa is a sacred tree in many regions of southern Ghana and Nigeria. It is thought to house the souls of the newborn. The household gods of the Ibo (s. Nigeria) are always carved with its wood and its bark is used in some medicinal treatments.

36. Annan, J.L. 1980. The indigenous vegetable dyeing industries in Kumasi and its surrounding area. Thesis (BSc.) Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

Natural dyes are still commonly used for making traditional cloths in the Ashante region of Ghana. They are especially valued for festival and ceremonial occasions. Dyes extracted from the bark of forest and savannah trees provide particular ingredients for traditional cloths. For example, an extraction from the bark of Bridelia ferruginea is used to dye Adinkra cloth. The bark, roots and stems of Lannea kerstingii are used for dying the funeral cloth Kuntunkun. Other important dyes are derived from Entandrophragma angolense, Bombax buonopozense, and Terminalia ivorensis. Included in this paper is a list of other dye species, their habitat, dye colour and plant parts collected. Naturally dyed cloths are more expensive, but as they serve ceremonial functions they are still sought after. The production of cloth is widespread. One village on the outskirts of Kumasi accounts for 50% of the cloth production. There, the industry is highly specialised, involving bark collectors, transporters, dye extractors or processors, dye traders, and cloth dyers. Traditionally only men could dye the ceremonial cloths. However, women are now involved in all but Adinkra cloth dying. The search for dye material has become more competitive (in some cases material is harder to find), collectors are now obliged to obtain the permission of town chiefs before gathering bark. Economic aspects of this small-scale industry are also discussed.

37. Annegers, J. F. 1973. Seasonal food shortages in West Africa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 2:251-257.

In the southern regions of West Africa diets are generally based on tuberous crops which are typically low in protein. There is also a higher incidence of protein-calorie malnutrition in the southern areas. This consumption study, with its corresponding nutrient composition data, provides some interesting information. For instance, on average, insects provide 1-2 g of protein per capita per day in the region.

38. Ansa, E. 1986. A study of women in forestry in Ghana. (BSc.) Thesis, Institute of Renewable and Natural Resources. University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

The retail trade of non-timber forest products in Ghana is dominated by women. Women are, ‘however, only minimally involved in timber trade. This paper presents the results of a study of the traders at Makola market. In this market women dominate the trade of: chewing sticks, wooden pestles and mortars, bushmeat, raw canes, cane baskets, charcoal, fuelwood, wooden ladles, kitchen stools and chop boxes. The trade of these products involves 166 retail traders, an indicator of the local importance of these products and forest-based rural industries.

39. Anyiwo, C.E. et al. 1986. The anti-bacterial effect of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum. Journal of Research in Ethno-medicine 1(1):4-8.

Ocimum gratissimum is used in traditional treatments to stop bleeding wounds and nose infections. The chemical analysis of its oil reveals that it has antibacterial properties similar to other antibiotics, and is especially effective against salmonella and E. coli (causes sinusitus). The authors concluded that it could be an effective treatment against wound infections.

40. Ardayfio, E. 1983. Household energy utilization in selected settlements in Nigeria. Bulletin of the Ghana Geographic Association New Series Vol. 1.

A study of household fuelwood use and preferences in the forest and savanna areas of southwestern Nigeria which indicates that a wide variety of species and qualities of wood are used. Eleven species are commonly exploited in the forest zone. The desired wood qualities include high caloric value producing a long lasting steady burn. Fuelwood is gathered from the immediate surrounding area. While women have species preferences, proximity is the key factor determining what they actually use for fuelwood. The preferred species in the forest zone villages include: Ficus asperifolia, Celtis zenkeri, Cola acuminata, Funtumia elastica, and Ricinodendron heudelotii. Data on the quantity of fuelwood consumed per household and per individual is presented: people consume from 1.9 kg to 4 kg a day per capita (depending primarily on household size). Ardayfio finds no significant relationship between the ecological zones and fuelwood consumption.

41. Ardayfio, E. 1985. Women and urban marketing in Ghana. In Gallin, R.S. and Spring, A. (eds.). 1985. Women creating wealth: transforming economic development. Association for Women in Development Conference, 25-27 April, Washington D.C., USA.

Examines the position of women in the economy with respect to trade in particular: 84% of the people involved in Ghanaian trade are women. Fifty-one percent of wholesalers, who control the market for products transported over long distances from their production sites, derive their capital from personal savings, as banks do not support women. The paper also includes a discussion of the major markets for certain products.

42. Ardayfio, E. 1986. The rural energy crisis in Ghana: its implications for women’s work and household survival. World Employment Program, Working paper 39, International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, Switzerland.

This study examines the impact of the energy crisis on women and household well-being. It compares information in three villages from different regions in Ghana. It explores the energy situation in Ghana; the impact of modernisation on rural households; rural energy use and requirements; the relationship between the rural energy crisis and women’s work; and the relationship between rural energy, household nutrition and health.

In some cases fuelwood scarcity may force households to purchase fuelwood at the expense of food purchases (in one village household fuelwood expenditures rose from 1% to 16.3% of total expenditures within a few months). It may reduce cooking time, which in some cases results in changes in the types of foods consumed. The added time spent fuelwood collecting may increase the negative health effects of gathering (e.g. headaches and backaches). In addition, income earning activities which require a large input of fuelwood may have to be curtailed as the “operating” expenses become prohibitive. A description of common food dishes, their ingredients and the time required to cook them is included.

43. Asamoah, R.K.F. 1985. Uses of fallow trees and farm practices in Bo forest district (Ghana). Thesis, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

Includes a survey of the trees found in fallow and fanned fields. Describes the reasons certain species are left in farm fields, and explores the different uses for the more common fallow tree species (which include Terminalia glaucescens, Faidherbia albida (syn. Acacia albida), Phyllanthus sp., Anogeissus leiocarpus, Chlorophora excelsa, Alstonia boonei, Ceiba pentandra). Approximately 75% of the fallow species serve as medicines, 92% have soil improvement qualities, 92% have domestic uses. The paper includes detailed information on the various uses of these different species. For example, the wood of Anogaissus leiocarpus is used for farm implements, especially hoe handles. The wood of Garienia ternifolia is used for knife handles. The leaves of Chlorophora excelsa are used as sandpaper; its gum is used as a bird trap; its wood is used for mortars. The wood of Funtumia elastica is used for household utensils and agricultural tools. The wood of Cola gigantea is used for fencing and farm implements, its bark is used for treating sores.

Ceiba pentandra’s fruits are used in medicines, domestically for pillow making and commercially sold to help plug holes in canoes; the seeds’ oil is taken against rheumatism, sold commercially for soap-making, and used to ignite fires; the leaves are consumed in soups and also provide fodder to goats, their ash provides a good mulch; the bark and stem are used in a medicine and a mouthwash; the roots are used in a treatment for leprosy. A favoured mushroom grows at the base of their stems. They are also a good honey fodder tree. Finally, they are a sacred tree, the leaves and bark are believed to expel evil spirits.

Asamoah also finds that half of these fallow and farm land trees have cultural or customary importance. Ceiba pentandra and Chlorophora excelsa for example, are both considered sacred trees.

44. Asedam, J.J. 1982. Nutritive value of some Ghanaian mushrooms. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana (unpublished).

Examines the nutrition composition of some commonly consumed mushrooms (e.g. Termitomyces sp. and Volvoreillea sp.). Includes a general discussion on their consumption; they are highly valued foods, but are only available in the early rainy season. They are good sources of minerals and, in some cases, protein.

45. Asibey, E.O.A. 1965. Utilization of wildlife in Ghana. Ghana Farmer 9:91-93.

This article discusses the role of bushmeat in the diets of rural people. It presents data on the increasing price of bushmeat in regional markets (increase of 25% in the seven years from 1956 to 1963) and it notes that bushmeat prices are higher than domestic meat prices. The piece includes a discussion of the most frequently traded species and the profits earned by bushmeat traders. High exploitation has led to a reduction in large game species; nonetheless, the range of species that are sold appears to be far greater than current accounts of the bushmeat market in Ghana (see Asibey’s later work).

46. Asibey, E.O.A. 1974. Wildlife as a source of protein in Africa south of the Sahara. Biological Conservation 6(1): 32-39.

Reviews studies conducted on the consumption of wild meat in Africa. Results are presented from the bushmeat market survey in Ghana. A broader range of animals are now consumed compared to what was eaten in the past. Wildlife resources have been so degraded that the choice of bushmeat species has become less selective. Asibey notes that small game and insects are the most important food species. He emphasises that conservation efforts must help maintain the supply of subsistence foods such as wild animals.

47. Asibey, E.O.A. 1977. Expected effects of land-use patterns on future supplies of bushmeat in Africa south of the Sahara. Environmental Conservation 4(1): 43-49.

Reviews information on the food uses of wildlife in African countries. Notes that where it is available, West Africans consume bushmeat. In fact, there is a growing demand for bushmeat which has been driven by the continued growth of urban and industrial centers. Asibey argues that current land-use planning does not reflect the demand for bushmeat production. He presents data from bushmeat markets and “chop” bars. At one chop bar in Sunyani, (Ghana) approximately 400 people consume bushmeat daily. Asibey notes that wild animals provide a supplementary source of income for many farmers: in one area of Ghana 80 farmers earned approximately 3850 cedis from a month’s hunting (or 48 cedis each). And in other study, Asibey reveals that one farmer earned an average 1,700 cedis a year from bushmeat sales.

48. Asibey, E.O.A. 1986. Wildlife and food security. Paper prepared for the Forestry Department, FAO, Rome, Italy (unpublished).

A good paper reviewing the contribution of wildlife meat to the diets and economies of both rural and urban communities. Includes information on the price of bushmeat in rural and urban markets in several countries. Generally bushmeat sells for more than domestic meat. Asibey notes that the nutritional quality of bushmeat is comparable, and in some cases superior to that of domestic meat.

Detailed information on the economics of bushmeat trade are also provided. For many, it can be a major source of income: a hare hunter in Argentina can earn the equivalent of US$ 1,350 a month, compared with a farm labourer’s US$ 100. An interview with a Ghanaian reveals that hunting provides him with more income than farming; farming is valued for the variety of foods and insurance it provides (crops, unlike wild game, may be pledged for loans).

Asibey reviews what is known about habitat management and game ranching and explores the possibility of managing agricultural areas and pest control activities to foster wild meat production. The appendices provide a summary of research by country, as well as data from selected countries on bushmeat markets. Excellent bibliography.

49. Asibey, E.O.A. 1987a. The grasscutter. Forestry Commission, Accra, Ghana. Prepared for FAO Regional Office, Accra, Ghana.

Description of the ecology of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus). Presents information on the consumption and trade of grasscutter in Ghana. Data from one market survey in Accra shows that over 61,900 grasscutters were sold over 6 years. The price of grasscutter has increased from an average 84 cedis/kg in 1980 to 685 cedis/kg in 1986 (compared to 272 cedis/kg for beef). This paper also presents information on the domestication of this species.

50. Asibey, E.O.A. 1987b. Wildlife issues in sub-saharan Africa. Paper presented at the International Symposium and Conference: Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, 6-12 October. Sponsored by FAO and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, Harare, Zimbabwe, pp. 32-50.

A general discussion of the importance of wildlife as a source of food and income for many people in both urban and rural Africa. In some areas bushmeat has become so valuable that rural dwellers sell what they catch to urbanites rather than consuming it themselves. Discusses different strategies for restoration of wildlife, including: domestication, game ranching, forest habitat management, conservation, and agricultural pest control geared to consumption or sale of pests as bushmeat.

51. Atsu, S.Y. and Owusu, P. 1982. Food production and resource use in the traditional food farms in the eastern region of Ghana. Technical Publication Series No. 41. Institute of Statistical, Social, and Economic Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

A detailed farm level study examining the socioeconomic situation and farming practices of two households. Includes interesting information on farming assets, marketing and “investment” practices.

Describes farming equipment; one of the studied households owned 13 cane baskets, 3 cutlasses, and 2 hoes, investing (the following season) in 2 new baskets, 2 cutlasses, and 2 hoes. The second household (with far fewer resources) owned 2 cutlasses, 2 cane baskets, 5 jute sacks and 1 mattock.

52. Awesu, M.O. 1980. The biology and management of the African giant snail Archachatina marginata. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Giant snails are an important food in the southern regions of Nigeria. They are a good source of protein and vitamin B1. This article focuses on the potential for domestication of the giant snail.

53. Ayeni, J.S.O. 1980. The biology and utilization of the helmet guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata) in Nigeria. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Reviews available information on the importance of bushmeat consumption in Nigeria. Reports that guinea fowl is an accepted food in all Nigerian States. Seventy-nine percent of those interviewed had consumed guinea fowl. It is generally found in the wild, but is domesticated. Guinea fowl eggs are considered a delicacy and are preferred to chicken eggs.

54. Ayeni, J.S.O., Aire, T.A., Olomu, J.M. (eds.). 1983. The helmet guinea fowl in Nigeria. Papers from a workshop on the grey breasted guinea fowl (Numida Maleagris Galeata), Lagos, Nigeria. Sponsored by FAO.

Estimates that there are 44 million semi-domesticated guinea fowl in Nigeria (25% of all poultry). The population of the southern species - the crested guinea fowl - is decreasing because of habitat (forest) destruction. This paper presents information on their nutritional value as well as people’s preferences for bushfowl over chicken (45%).

55. Ayensu, E.S. 1978. The medicinal plants of West Africa. Reference Publications Inc., Algonac, Michigan, USA.

Describes 187 plant species used (with references for each use described) in medical treatments in different regions of West Africa. Includes an index by ailment and species.

56. Ayo Odunfa, S. 1981. Micro-organisms associated with fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea) during Iru preparation. Journal of Plant Foods 3:245-250.

Iru is the most important food condiment in Nigeria and other countries of West Africa. It is a fermented vegetable protein prepared from the seeds of the African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea). Locust beans are not extensively used for food in their natural state, since they contain protease inhibitors such as trypsin which reduce the digestibility of protein. Fermentation counteracts these inhibitors, increases their digestibility and thus permits the use of the beans as food. The vitamin content of the parkia seeds is also found to increase during fermentation.

57. Bahuchet, S. 1972. Etude écologique d’un campement de pygmées Babinga (Région Lobaye, Centre Afrique). Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et Botanique Appliquée 19(12): 510-599.

An ethnographic study of the Babinga pygmies. Discusses the foods most frequently gathered by the pygmies. Among the most frequent are the fruit of Irvingia gabonensis, leaves of Gnetum spp., roots, and mushrooms. Discusses the seasonal variations in gathering and consumption of forest foods. Babinga pygmies consume large numbers and a great variety of insects. Discusses hunting techniques and the forest products used for making traps, nets and other hunting equipment. Traps are designed to catch small animals (e.g. rats, porcupines, mice, duikers, and civets). Notes that hunting is a seasonal activity. Finally, discusses food consumption practices. Examines food consumed during meals at one camp of 20 days. Notes that snack food are commonly eaten throughout the day. Discusses the difference in food consumption between seasons and in forest versus village camps.

58. Bahuchet, S. 1978. Les contraintes écologiques en forêt tropicale humide: l’exemple des pygmées Aka de la Lobaye (Centre Afrique). Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et Botanique Appliquée 25 (4): 257-285.

An anthropological study which examines the relationship between the hunter-gatherer pygmies and their forest environment. Includes a great deal of detailed information on the food plants and animals that are exploited. Although this is an equatorial climate, most foods have distinct seasonalities. The, forest areas are extremely heterogeneous in their resources, both spatially and in time. For example, most tubers are available only in the dry season. Similarly, honey is also a dry season product. The main trade product is bushmeat though honey, wild fruits and leaves, ivory, skins, and mushrooms are also traded. Hunting techniques vary by season, as do the species being hunted. Includes a map illustrating different forest types, and a list of commonly and occasionally consumed forest plants and animals.

59. Balinga, V.S. 1977. Competitive uses of wildlife: a Cameroon wildlife officer tells how policy turned to practical management. Unasylva 29(116): 22-25.

A general discussion of the role of wildlife at the national and local levels. Wildlife is an important source of meat for many Cameroonians, especially in the southern regions. This article estimates that 2,000 tonnes of bushmeat are consumed annually in the country. It discusses the incentives for hunting in respect to national laws. And notes that wild game is often killed for medicinal and ritual purposes. A list of commonly consumed game in different ecological regions is provided.

60. Baptist, R. and Mensah, G. 1986. Bénin et L’Afrique de l’Ouest: l’aucolade-animal l’élevage promotteur. World Animal Review 60:2-6.

This article reviews the research that has been conducted on bushmeat consumption throughout West Africa. It notes that bushmeat is preferred over domestic meat in Benin and is commonly sold in markets. It also discusses the potential for domestication of grasscutters.

61. Barbier, J.C. and Tissandier, J. 1980. “Nbandjok” ou les promesses d’une ville liée a un complexe agro-industriels sucrier au Caméroun. In Complexes Agroindustriels au Caméroun. Travaux Documents, ORSTOM No. 118 Paris. France.

This study includes data on the market products from Mbandjok, Cameroon. The value of marketed goods on four market days is recorded. Information on termites, bushmeat, oil palm kernels and fruit is included.

62. Béguin, J-P. 1952. L’habitat au Caméroun. ORSTOM, Paris, France.

A descriptive and pictoral account of different housing styles and construction techniques (including information on raw materials) that are used in different regions of Cameroon. Also describes structures built for storage and drying of different agricultural and cash crops.

63. Belisle, M. 1987. Le territoire forestier Camérounais: les ressources, les intervenants, les politiques d’utilisation. Paper prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, and International Institute for Environment and Development, Washington D.C., USA (unpublished).

This paper reviews the forest resource and policy situation in Cameroon. It notes that forest areas support an important wildlife population that provides food to many Cameroonians, especially in the southern region. On average, people consume an estimated 2.5/kg/capita/year (and fish consumption of an average 9/kg/year/capita). In the southern region wild game provides the main source of animal protein.

64. Benneh, G. 1973. Small-scale farming systems in Ghana. Africa (Journal of the international African Institute) 43(2): 134-146 (April).

This article includes a discussion of the judicial role of trees in the Huza bush fallow system. The tree Pycnocoma cornuta is planted to mark the boundaries of farm strips. Land is purchased in groups which are sub-divided into individual strips. The piece also discusses the tree species left in cocoa farms. The most common species are: Ceiba pentandra, Chlorophora excelsa, and Ficus asperifolia.

65. Bergeret, A. 1986. Fonctionne alimentaire des arbres et arbustes et quelques plantes herbacées de Sali, Sénégal. Communication au VII Séminaire d’Economie et Sociologie Rurale, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France. 15-19 September. Sponsored by Centre Internationale Rurale Agriculture et Développement (CIRAD). (Findings published in Botanique Appliquée 33:91-130.)

This study is included despite the fact that it is not in the Humid Zone because it provides a good example of how information on forests, agriculture and nutrition can be integrated in order to examine the role forest products play in the day to day lives of rural populations. It examines the nutritional contribution of trees and other wild plant foods to the diets of three ethnic groups living in the Sine-Saloum region. These groups consume (collectively) more than 110 species of wild plants (the parts consumed and species are listed). Provides information on the seasons in which foods are collected and consumed. An analysis of the nutritional value (linked to physiological function) of different foods is also included. The study reviews the conditions of the forest resource base and discusses the current shortage of forest foods. The study integrates information on seasonal patterns in the agricultural cycle, forest food use, the nutritional value of different foods and inventory data on different food resources.

66. Bergeret, B. 1957. Note préliminaire a l’étude du vin de palme au Caméroun. Médecine Tropicale 17(6): 901-904.

Discusses the nutritional value of palm wine which is consumed in large quantities in southern Cameroon. He notes that it is an especially good source of vitamins B1, B2 and C.

67. Berron, H. 1980. Tradition et modernisme en pays lagunaires de Basse Côte d’Ivoire. Editions Ophrys, Paris. France.

Discusses the economic production activities, processing and trade of the region neighbouring Abidjan. Includes details of the different forest products that support these small industries. Discusses fish-smoking activities including estimates of the costs of production (fish, labour, and cost of fuelwood). Notes that most of the fish produced for the local market are caught and processed by small-scale enterprises (artisans) as opposed to large fishing companies. The short smoke technique is used by women who are near markets. The long smoke method is necessary when fish are to be transported over long distances.

Fish processing can be a lucrative enterprise increasing the value of the fish two or threefold. Attieke (manioc flour) production is another food processing enterprise which depends on fuelwood as well as the leaves of Thaumatococcus daniellii which are needed to wrap, cook and sell attieke. These leaves are gathered in forest areas and sold in local markets for 10 F a packet of 60. Discusses the prices of fuelwood and charcoal in Abidjan and surrounding markets.

68. Bicchierri, M. 1972. Hunters and gatherers today: socioeconomic study of eleven such cultures in the twentieth century. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, N.Y., USA.

This book is a collection of anthropological studies on contemporary hunter-gatherer societies. Several studies focus on the wild plants and animals that are used for daily subsistence. The book provides information on seasonality in the use of various plants. The symbolic and cultural value of the natural surroundings is also discussed.

69. Biffot, L. 1977. Contribution a la connaissance et compréhension de la population rurale de Nord-Est Gabon. Collection Science Humaine Gabonaise, Centre National de la Recherche Science et Technologie. Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique Charge de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la Nature, Gabon.

This study of the rural environment in northeast Gabon looks at the lives and cultivation practices of two village communities examining the historical and current farming systems. The study classifies plants by their uses: food, industrial, medicinal, and euphoristic. The sections on medicinal and euphoristic plants contain some information on the social traditions associated with each plant’s use. The report also examines rural housing (and construction material), explores commercialisation patterns, road infrastructure, and rural villagers attitudes towards urbanites.

Finally, the use of village and farm tree products is discussed. It notes, for example, that the fruits of Pachylobus edulis and Persea gratissima are used as meat substitutes while the seeds of Ceiba pentandra are mainly exploited for their “cotton”.

70. Binet, J. 1974. Drogue et mystique: le Bwiti de Fangs (Cameroon). Diogéne 86:34-57.

Explores the symbolic and mystical uses of certain forest species valued by the Fangs of southern Cameroon. The Nzimba (temple - location of initiation ceremonies and other rites) is always located at the base of a large forest tree, where certain medicinal plants are cultivated and maintained. The tree symbolises the forest which houses the body of God. It is the source of people’s food. The root bark of the species Tabernantha iboga (a hallucinogen) must be consumed by all initiates, so that they can see God. Iboga is the vehicle which allows man to see God. The species is always planted near the Nzimba. The article also discusses the ritual use of other drug species.

71. Biyiti, L. et al. 1983. A preliminary study of the in vitro anti-bacterial activity of a Cameroonian medicinal plant, Tabernaemontana crassa. Review of Science and Technology. Health Science Series, Cameroon, Volume 11:3-4.

Presents the results of a chemical analysis of this species’ bark, which is traditionally used against common infections. The results show that this species is extremely effective against some bacterial strains.

72. Blanc-Pamard, C. 1979. Un jeu écologique différentiel: Les communautés rurales du contact forêts-savanes au fond du “V Baoulé” (Côte d’Ivoire). Travaux Documents, ORSTOM No. 107, Paris, France.

This study provides an in-depth examination of natural resource use in three village communities in the forest-savannah region. This analysis describes each village’s agricultural and other economic and subsistence activities. It examines the time required to produce and process a variety of products (analysis of labour) in different seasons, and the budget and expenditures of several case study households. It evaluates markets, housing and food supply and consumption.

The study villages differ in their agricultural practices and economic activities. (In one village production was primarily cocoa and coffee cash crops, while in other villages staple crops (especially yams) dominated cultivation activities.) The degree to which different products are marketed in this region depends upon the need for cash, the accessibility of markets, product availability and the time available for collection and sale. The resources that are available are more diverse than in other regions, as they span two major ecological zones.

Gathering from the forest areas is reported to be an important activity in all villages, especially the one least dependent on cocoa/coffee. Some of the important products that are gathered from the forest include: cola nuts (for trade), palm products (oil, wine, fruit, leaves for construction, and raw materials for basketry and other artisanal activities), wild fruits and other foods (especially during the hunger season and during field work), fuelwood (especially in the villages close to regional markets), poles for house construction, snails, insects and mushrooms.

The study also includes a table of 68 medicinal plants gathered from the different environments, describing their habitat and uses. Information comes from interviews with traditional healers in the three study villages. For example, the leaves and fruit of Trema guineensis are crushed and used to treat toothaches. The leaves are eaten by women who are trying to have children. A decoction of the roots of Ricinodendron africanum are taken for stomachaches. The leaves of Euphorbia hirta are taken as a purgative. Young leaves are also used to treat conjunctivitis. The latex sap is used on wounds.

Hunting is still an important activity in one region (where production is not focused on cash crops). The forest/savannah is a good region for hunting, as animals from both environments can be caught. Dry season hunting is carried out in groups in the savannah areas where bush fires are set to flush out the game. Grasscutters, rats and other rodents are the main species that are hunted. Hunting is conducted throughout the year in the forest areas, usually by individuals who set traps around plantations or along paths. Some hunt with guns. Larger game is found in the forest region, mainly duikers and other antelopes, porcupines and squirrels. Children often catch (and consume) small animals (birds and small rodents).

Bushmeat provides an important source of animal protein and in some cases cash income. In predominantly cocoa/coffee areas, hunting is less common. In all regions insects and snails are much sought after. The prevalence of hunting appears to be a function of the supply of game (rather than time or accessibility of markets).

73. Blanc-Pamard, C. 1980. De l’utilisation de trois espèces de palmiers dans le sud du “V Boualé” (Côte d’Ivoire). Série Sciences Humaine, Cahiers d’ORSTOM 17(3-4): 247-257, Paris, France.

This article provides a discussion of the Baoulé population’s current and historic use of palm products. Three species are common in the region (a transition zone between the humid forest and savanna). The palms and spines are used for basket-making, mats, cage-carriers (for chickens), and fences. Borassus aethiopium (palmyra) is most extensively exploited for its sap; it is used to make palm wine. The fruits are consumed in season, while the head (terminal bud) is eaten in famine periods. Elaeis guineensis is exploited for its fruit/kernel oil as well as its wine. The mushrooms growing on the felled stems of the oil palm are collected during the rainy season. Raphia palm (Phoenix reclinata) is less common in the region. It is most prized for house construction, providing the material for the walls and roofs. The leaves are also used for finer mats (for sleeping), coffee dryers, and sacks. Its wine is considered better than that of the other two palms, but is only tapped for special ceremonies. Some data on the marketing of palm wine is included in the study. The author concludes that the region’s palms are important in the people’s material and spiritual worlds.

74. Boamah, A.A. 1986. A study of indigenous tenures relating to trees and forests in some parts of Ghana. Thesis (BSc), Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

A study of different land and tree tenure regulations and practices in Ghana. The study differentiates between the user rights for trees of different species, trees on different types of land (e.g. lineage fallow land versus temporarily granted land), and trees that are valued for different uses. The rules govern rights to medicinal products, fruit from the tree, fruit from under the tree, fuelwood and timber. They also distinguish between trees that are planted and those that are naturally occurring. Usuary rights vary by tree species; rights regarding species with a cash value are more restrictive (e.g. Cola sp.). Some tree products such as medicines may be used by all people, no matter what the land and tree ownership, while the use of other products, especially marketable goods (fruits), is controlled by established user regulations. The study suggests that medicines, fallen fruit and, in some cases, fuelwood, are considered “basic” products which cannot be denied to those in need. In addition, the use of commercially valuable trees for subsistence consumption is generally allowed.

75. Boni, D. 1982. L’économie de plantation en Côte d’Ivoire forestière. Thesis Doctorat de l’Etat, Institute of Tropical Geography, University of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (unpublished).

This detailed analysis of oil palm plantations in the forest zone of Côte d’Ivoire includes a discussion of the “other” uses of palms. Generally these trees are not planted, but selectively protected and encouraged. Palm hearts are occasionally eaten, and wine tapping is very common. Palm fronds are used for house construction as roofs, in basketry and other artisanal activities. Newborns are bathed in palm kernel oil. And oil palm roots are used in several different medicinal treatments.

76. Bouet, C. 1980. La Saga de l’Okoumé au Gabon. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines, 17(3-4): 269-273.

This paper discusses the traditional and economic importance of several forest trees from Gabon: Aucoumea klaineana, Pachylobus edulis, P. buttreri and Pycnanthus angolensis. Their mystical value (e.g. medicines, sacred groves) and practical uses (e.g. canoes, implements and utensils) are both reviewed. Their commercial timber value is also assessed.

77. Bouquet, A. 1969. Féticheurs et médecines traditionnelles du Congo. Mémoire d’ORSTOM No. 36, Paris, France.

A descriptive account of over 1,000 plant species having symbolic, medicinal, or ritual importance. For each species the common name, botanical description, uses and methods of use are provided. Bouquet notes that wild plants and their uses are very familiar to those living in rural areas. He adds that collected forest plants are essential supplements (especially what is consumed between meals) to the region’s protein and vitamin poor diet. The piece also provides information on sacred trees (among the more common sacred species are Ficus thonningii and Anonidium mannii).

78. Boutillier, J.H. and Dupire, M. 1958. Le pays Adioukrou et sa palmeraie (Côte d’Ivoire): etude socio-économique. ORSTOM, Paris, France.

This socioeconomic analysis examines palm oil processing enterprises in rural household. The division of revenue from palm tapping, fruit harvesting, and oil processing is also examined. For example, in one case 42% of the revenue went to the palm climber (harvest), 38% went to the wife of the climber and her assistants (oil processing), and 20% went to the owner of the palm tree.

79. Boye G. (no date). Traditional medicine - the Ghanaian approach. Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine, Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana (unpublished).

A general paper on traditional medical practices in Ghana. Describes the role of institutions (the Ghana psychic and traditional healers association) in organising traditional medicine practitioners. Notes that traditional practitioners treat the majority of rural Ghanaians. In 1978, there were 3,363 registered, practising traditional healers in Ghana. Discusses the role of the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicines in developing means of synthesising traditional and modern medical care.

80. Burkhill, H.M. 1985 (2nd edition). Useful plants of tropical West Africa. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, London, Great Britain.

A revised and updated version of Dalziel’s work, this book includes information published since 1937. Arranged by plant family, each species’ entry includes a botanical description giving the plant’s ecological distribution, and a listing of local uses and local names. There is a subject index arranged by usage. Volume I is completed (A-D). Though the information is descriptive, the immense number of plant uses that are listed serve to illustrate their value to the local population.

81. Busson, F. 1961. Plantes alimentaires de l’Ouest Afrique: étude biologique, botanique et chimique. Leconte, Ed. Marseille, France.

This book analyses regional foods gathered from the wild. It provides a description of the botany, chemistry and food uses of the region’s indigenous plants.

82. Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.). 1969. Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes Africains I (The tree in African stories). Société d’Etude Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France No. 16, Paris, France.

This collection of essays examines the symbolic importance of the tree in African oral tradition. In Africa, the tree features in many myths and tales, reflecting the permanence of a few important symbolic images; the tree stands between heaven and earth (cosmic tree); it is a protector and nurse (maternal), a phallic symbol (paternal and ancestral), and the ambiguous image of death and rebirth. Also, the tree often features in beliefs and rites. It can be a provider of goods (food, medicines etc.), or symbolise human fecundity. Deciduousness (death and rebirth) is seen as an indication of the trees power to give life, rebirth, and also death.

83. Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.). 1970. Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes Africains II. Société d’Etude Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France No. 20, Paris, France.

This collection of three essays surveys the symbolic role of trees in African stories: the tree as a justice, the tree and marriage, and the tree and ancestors. In folk stories the tree plays either an active (e.g. tree marries a person, gives life or death) or instrumental role (e.g. as intermediary in the marriage of a couple, as a link between ancestors and the living).

84. Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.). 1974. Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes III. Société d’Etude Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France No. 42-43, Paris. France.

This collection of essays further assesses the role of trees in African (and other) stories. It gathers together plant themes from Tenda, Samo and Dogon stories. The references to different plants are analysed in light of ethnobotanical information on the specific uses and value of particular plants.

85. Calame-Griaule, G. 1980. L’arbre et l’imaginaire. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 17(3-4): 315-321.

This article is, essentially, an essay on the symbolic and mythical role of trees in African folklore. Trees are portrayed as ‘cosmic’ linking the underworld with the sky; protectors; providers of essential goods, foods, knowledge and fecundity; paternal; and as symbols of the dialectic between life and death.

86. Campbell, B.M. 1986. The importance of wild fruits for peasant households in Zimbabwe. Food and Nutrition 12(1): 38-44.

An interesting study on the use of wild fruits in rural Zimbabwe which finds that three species are especially favoured: Diospyros mespiliformis, Strychnos cocaloides and Azanza garckeana. The study notes that preference for and use of these three favoured fruit species seems not to have been affected by deforestation. Fruits are consumed most frequently as snacks; in the survey only 23% of those collecting fruit reported saying they would use them for their meals.

87. Campbell-Platt, G. 1980. African locust bean (Parkia sp.) and its fermented food product Dawadawa. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 9(2): 123-132.

This is an excellent study containing a great deal of detailed information on the role, frequency and consumption of Parkia sp. (african locust bean). This important tree food is a legume whose seed pods are a commonly food in West Africa. The pods are fermented to make Dawadawa (a common soup and sauce ingredient). The pericarp is also eaten fresh. The seeds are rich in protein, lysine, fat and riboflavin. They provide a valuable food during the hungry season, especially for the poor. Parkia sp. is consumed in 50% of all meals in Ghana’s Upper Region, and 10% of all meals in the northern region. It was eaten on 90 out of the 100 days of study by the Calbrais of northern Togo. And in northern Nigeria it is the second cheapest protein source after groundnuts.

88. Cashman, K. 1987. Women’s activities and the potential of alley farming in southwestern Nigeria. Report prepared for The Ford Foundation. International Livestock Center for Africa, Humid Zone Programme, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

An interesting socioeconomic study on women’s activities in the region. Explores women’s income-earning activities, the most important of which is palm oil processing. Cashman compares the profits earned in different activities (e.g. oil processing, food sale, fish sale, maize processing, cola nut sales, locust bean processing, soap-making), and the labour and initial capital investment required for these varied activities. Oil processing and sales of cola nuts bring the highest profits, but the initial investment required for cola trading is comparatively high, while the labour required in palm oil processing is great. Nonetheless, oil processing is the greatest source of income for most of the women who were interviewed. In this area women earn the majority of household’s cash income. Farm produce is valued for its regular returns, while the income that is earned from oil-processing is used for “bulk” expenses such as school fees. Women often “fix” their earnings in livestock to avoid giving the income to their husbands. Most trees and their products are owned by men (e.g. cola, oil palms and parkias); women pay tree owners and harvesters (climbers) a percentage of produce or profits from the sale of processed products.

89. Chambers, R. and Leach, M. 1986. Trees to meet contingencies: a strategy for the rural poor? Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, Sussex, Great Britain.

An interesting analysis which explores the role trees may play as insurance against unexpected death, illness, or drought. Trees provide growing economic banks whose products may be sold or used in emergencies.

90. Chambers, R. and Longhurst, R. 1986. Trees, seasons and the poor. IDS Bulletin 17(3): 44-50, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, Sussex, Great Britain.

In this essay, the authors illustrate the seasonal importance of trees to the poor; trees dampen the impacts of seasonal fluctuations in climate, food supply, labour and other hardships. Four distinct roles are identified: ameliorating microclimate effects, providing slack and lean season food and fodder, providing employment thus smoothing fluctuations in income generating activities, and meeting seasonal contingencies. Trees may provide food during the lean period, or during peak agricultural periods when there is little time for food preparation. The income that is generated from processing, gathering, and trade of forest products can be an important part of many poor peoples’ survival strategy (e.g. charcoal production and sale may increase in poor harvest years). Finally trees may provide insurance (i.e. standing timber) against unforeseen hardships (e.g. deaths, sickness, marriages).

91. Champaud, J. 1983. Ville et campagnes du Caméroun de l’ouest. Mémoires ORSTOM 98, ORSTOM, Paris, France.

This geographic study on the relationship between urban and rural areas in Cameroon includes information on 3 urban markets: Narjo, Bangargté and Foumbot. It includes data on the numbers of retail traders of palm wine, cola nuts, palm oil, traditional medicines and artisan products. The study focuses on the dynamics of the cola trade in western Cameroon.

92. Charter, J.R. 1973. The economic value of wildlife in Nigeria. Research Paper No. 19. Federal Forestry Department, Nigeria.

This report estimates the economic value of wild animal meat in three areas of southern Nigeria. Bushmeat contributes approximately 19% of the overall meat consumed in the study areas (while fish contributes 60% and livestock 21%). In areas with high population density and no forest reserves such as Onitsha, bushmeat contributes 7% of the total animal meat consumed, whereas in areas near large forests, bushmeat provides the majority of meat consumed: 82% in Benin and 84% in Oyo.

93. Chong, P. 1987. Alleviation of fuelwood supply shortages in the western area, Sierra Leone. FAO Consultant Report, Forestry Department (unpublished).

This report provides an analysis of people’s use of mangrove forest resources. Mangroves provide fuel (firewood and charcoal), food (oil, condiments, sweetmeats, vegetables, and alcohol), fodder, tannins and dyes, honey, fish, bushmeat and material for construction (for boats, docks, houses, and furniture).

Wood from mangrove areas is used for making fish traps, smoking ovens, shelters designed to attract fish, for fishing poles and boats. Tannins are extracted from the mangrove species and are used to preserve nets and lines. Firewood is used for fish smoking, cooking, and salt production. The fish smoking industry in Sierra Leone is entirely dependent on mangroves as their source of fuel; salt preservation provides the only alternative to smoking. Includes information on income earned per day by firewood cutters.

94. Chuta, E. 1978. The economy of the Gara cloth industry in Sierra Leone. Working paper No. 25, African Rural Economy Program, Michigan State and Njala College, Sierra Leone.

Three hundred and sixty small-scale private Gara dyeing establishments are economically analysed in this study. Traditionally, the indigo dye of Gara cloth is derived from the leaves of woody climber Lonchocarpus cyanescens. The leaves are collected, pounded, dried, and then sold to Gara cloth dyers (in 1974, a forty pound sack of dried leaves sold for 12 Leones). The Gara processing enterprises are predominantly owned (80%) and operated by women. Most of the labour in these enterprises is carried out by the proprietor and her family. Synthetic dyes have replaced the natural indigo dyes in some cases, however the traditional cloth fetches a much higher market price. This paper also describes other natural dye products.

95. Cline, E. 1985. Anti-bacterial properties of plants used medicinally in Gloucester village, Sierra Leone. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Sierra Leone, Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Sierra Leone (unpublished).

Presents the results of chemical analyses of commonly used medicinal plants to determine their anti-bacterial properties.

96. Clottey, J.A. 1969. Wildlife as a source of protein in Ghana. Paper presented at the Working Party on Wildlife Management, African Forestry Commission, Lome, Togo. Reprinted in Food and Nutrition in Africa 9:7-11(1971).

Clottey discusses the factors influencing the prominence of bushmeat in the diets of many Ghanaians. He notes that there is an increasing demand for bushmeat in urban areas and estimates that Ghanaians consume an average 1.8 g of bushmeat daily (similar to meat consumption). The commercial trading of bushmeat developed in the crisis years of 1964-66, with specialised processing centers scattered throughout the country to service urban demand. Included in this analysis are tables on the annual availability of animal protein, and a consumer price index for the meat market in Accra.

97. Coleman, A. 1983. La production artisanale dans le développement de la Côte d’Ivoire: le cas des travailleurs de Rotin sur la route de Bassam. Thesis Institut d’ethno-sociologie, Université de Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (unpublished).

A sociological study of the rattan enterprises in the Bassam area. Provides detailed information on the sources of raw materials, the costs of production, the economic situation of rattan workers, the production methods employed, as well as a description of final products (most of this information is based on interviews with workers at 24 different workshops). Discusses the costs (of material and labour) of specific rattan objects and their selling prices. Notes that the supply of rattan can be a problem, depending on the time of year. Certain regions (e.g. Anyama) have become specialised centres for the sale of unprocessed rattan. In this region most rattan workers are foreign men.

Also describes other plants used in basketry: e.g. Borassus sp. palm, forest lianas and the leaves of Thaumatococcus sp. Discusses the potential for development the rattan industry geared to the Abidjan and tourist markets.

98. Coles, M. 1981. Study of medicinal plants in Gloucester village (Sierra Leone). Thesis, Department of Botany, university of Sierra Leone, Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Sierra Leone (unpublished).

This study examines common medicinal plant treatments, and describes their preparation. The discussion is organised according to illness. For example, the paper discusses plant species used to treat malaria (e.g. infusions of the leaves of Sterculia tragacantha). The paper also presents the results of screening of 65 plant species for anti-fungal properties; four show anti-fungal activity (Ficus exasperata, Lantana camara, Colocassia esculentum, and Ageratum conyzoides). Also includes a description of plants that have mystical or symbolic functions.

99. Collart, A. 1986. Development planning for small-scale fisheries in West Africa: practical, technological, and socio-economic aspects of fish production and processing. FAO Publication IDAF/W/71.

This general overview of small-scale fishing activities throughout West Africa includes estimates of the numbers and types of fishing crafts that are used. It estimates the number of canoes (and other fishing craft) in each West African country. Dugout canoes are the most commonly used boats throughout the region. In Cameroon, for example, there are an estimated 4,450 canoes. Ghana produces most of the dugout canoes that are used throughout the region. They are made primarily from the trunks of Triplochiton scleroxylon. The cost of an eleven meter traditional dugout canoe was the equivalent of approximately $ 2,000 at the time of this study. A new type of canoe has been developed in Senegal using board planks. These boats, however, cost about three times more than traditional dugout canoes.

100. Collins, W. et al. 1962. On the ecology of child health and nutrition in Nigerian villages. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. (Reprinted from Tropical Geography and Medicine 14:201-229.)

A combined ecological and dietary survey was conducted over a year to examine the relationship between farming systems and nutrition. While the information and approach are dated, some interesting facts on diet and food consumption practices is included. Data on seasonal variations in nutrient consumption are also provided.

101. Commonwealth Secretariat. 1980. Turner’s Peninsula coconut project (Sierra Leone), feasibility study. Prepared for the Ministry of Trade and Industries, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

This study discusses common processing activities including piassava production (processed from wild raphia plants), palm oil production, palm wine tapping, coconut oil and salt production. It includes information on the resources exploited (e.g. number of trees tapped), the quantities produced and estimates the income that is earned. It notes that most palm products are gathered from wild trees.

102. Conseil Africain et Malgache pour l’Enseignement Supérieur. 1977. Troisième Colloque de CAMES médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopées africaines, Kigali, Zaïre.

A voluminous collection of papers on the use of plants in traditional medicine systems. Theme 1.: Botanical and ethnobotanical research. Theme 2.: Clinical and pharmacological research (papers explore different uses and preparations of traditional plant medicines). Theme 3.: Chemical research (explores chemical composition of different plant species). Theme 4.: Organizational research (focuses on how to further develop traditional medicine practices and how to integrate traditional and other types of medical services nationally).

103. Coulibaly, A. 1977. Artisanat de production et de service enquête régionale: Bandoukou, Bongouanou, Kaniola, Mankaro, Touba (Côte d’Ivoire). Office National de Formation Professionnelle, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (unpublished).

Presents an analysis of 750 interviews on artisan activities conducted in five rural zones of Côte d’Ivoire. The report describes the qualities and characteristics of rural small-scale enterprises. It notes that artisan activities can provide a supplementary source of income to agriculturalists. In areas with intensive agricultural production, less time is spent on artisanal production. Artisan activities are especially important in the off-peak agricultural season and during seasons of poor harvest. Approximately 30% of these activities involve woodworking. The survey identified 747 artisans whose activities supported an estimated 4,800 people.

104. Cousteix, P.J. 1961. L’art et la pharmacopée des guérisseurs Ewondo (Yaoundé Région, Cameroun). Recherches et Etudes Camérounaises. Yaoundé, Institut de Recherches Scientifiques du Caméroun, pp. 1-86.

This paper explores the Ewondo’s medicinal and mystical beliefs, discussing the practices of their traditional healers and fetishists. Arranged by type of ailment (e.g. illnesses of the intestines, problems specific to women, and health of newly born) each chapter includes descriptions of treatments. Approximately 200 medicinal plants are described.

105. Cremoux, P. 1963. The importance of game meat consumption in diet of sedentary and nomadic peoples of the Senegal River Valley. In Conservation of nature and natural resources in modern African states, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Publication, New Series 1, Morges, Switzerland.

This data is discussed in Asibey (1986) and Sale (1981). The paper discusses the importance of game in the diet of several Senegalese peoples. Includes estimates of annual bushmeat consumption for Senegal as a whole.

106. Dagogo. 1981. Ecology of the mangrove forest with special reference to the Delta. HND Project, School of Forestry, Forest Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Estimates that more than 700 people are employed in the fuelwood trade in Port Harcourt. The majority of the fuelwood is gathered from the mangrove areas. Mangrove species provide an excellent fuel which is especially valued for fish smoking.

107. Dalziel, J.M. 1937. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. London Crown Agents, London, Great Britain. An Appendix to Dalziel, J.M. and Hutchinson, J. 1927-1936. The flora of tropical West Africa. London Crown Agents, London, Great Britain.

A classic botanical text describing the plant resources of tropical West Africa. The appendix on useful plants provides information on more than 100 edible species and thousands of non-food plants with economic import. A significant number of the plants that described are forest-tree species. Many medicinal uses are also listed. (See also Burkhill 1985)

108. Darko, E. 1981. A survey of cane weaving in Ghana. Thesis (BSc), Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

This study of cane (rattan and raphia primarily) basketry in the Kumasi region notes that in one study village (Enyiresi), basketry is the main rural industry. Men dominate weaving activities, while women dominate the trade of cane and fabricated cane products. Labourers are generally hired by (women) wholesalers who transport the material to weavers. The costs and benefits for different segments of the small-scale industry (includes estimate production figures) are examined.

As this region’s supply of cane has begun to exhaust, the costs of production have begun to rise sharply. The industry’s main problems are an irregular supply of both raw materials, and labour for collection.

109. Davidson, O. 1985. Energy use patterns in Sierra Leone. Manuscript Report No. MR103e. International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada.

This general study of the energy situation in Sierra Leone includes good statistics on both private and commercial fuelwood and charcoal purchasing and use. The report also provides information on small-scale processing enterprises (e.g. the quantity of fuel used in baking) and the caloric values for the different species of fuelwood that are used in different enterprises. It notes that an increasing percentage of urban people’s income is being spent on wood fuel. For the majority of people in rural areas, fuelwood is the only source of energy. Fuelwood provides 72% of the total energy consumed by all sectors in Sierra Leone, charcoal provides a further 10%.

110. Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan. 1986. Feasibility study of indigenous forest fruit trees in Nigeria - Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia clappertoniana. Final Report. Prepared for the Federal Department of Forestry, Lagos, Nigeria (unpublished).

This paper examines the uses of these two indigenous economic species, their markets, marketability, availability and distribution. It includes a quantitative analysis of market prices and household consumption.

The kernels of Irvingia gabonensis are an important ingredient in the soups made to accompany a carbohydrate staple; in some areas there is such great demand that it has become a luxury item. It is estimated that, on average, households spend between 2 and 5% of their annual expenditure on irvingia products. The estimated annual household consumption ranges from 3.2 to 14.13 kg/year depending on the region. The major market for these kernels is rural southern Nigeria. Consumption is greater in rural areas, but there is a growing demand for it in urban centers. Indeed, irvingia seeds are even imported from Cameroon. The marketing of Irvingia sp. involves producers (principally men), processors (principally women), wholesalers and retailers. Generally the price is controlled by wholesalers, but for distant markets retailers have greater control over prices.

Although Parkia clappertoniana is a savannah tree, it is widely distributed throughout the southern region (it was found in 50% of the southern forest reserves studied). Its fermented seeds provide an extremely popular condiment which is often used as a meat substitute. Its leaves and pods provide fodder, and almost all this plant’s parts provide medicines. In the Lagos area 98% of those interviewed consume fermented parkia bean; 95% of the southern Nigerian population consumes fermented parkia regularly (an estimated 3.2 to 28 kg/household/year).

111. Depommier, D. 1983. Aspects de la foresterie villageoise dans l’Ouest et le Nord (Cameroun). Report of an internship. Institut de Recherche Agronomique and Centre Tropicale Forestier Technique, ‘Nkolbisson’ Cameroun.

The role of trees and forest areas in the west and north of Cameroon is examined in this report. In the West, trees are incorporated into the “farm” areas in live hedges and managed bush areas. Trees are planted and selectively managed. Eucalyptus is a favoured exotic species because of the nearby market for poles (electric company). This report discusses the economics of the eucalyptus trade. There are many other tree species (e.g. Cola nitida, Albizia glaberrima, Vernonia amygdalina) found in these hedge rows which are valued as reserve sources of food, fuel, timber, shade, medicines and other products. Raphia palms are especially valued. They grow in dense stands in valley bottoms, and are used for house construction (60% of a house’s building material is derived from the raphia palm), and palm wine (an important source of income). This study examines the prevalence of different species in planted hedge areas and in other farm areas. It includes a description of the uses of different common species, as well as the species different artisans prefer. For example, the leaves of Dracaena arborea are used in basket-making and weaving. The tree is also traditionally considered the tree of peace, it is used to mark property boundaries.

112. Dietworst, D. 1987. Household meat consumption survey in communities in southern Nigeria. International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA), Humid Zone Programme, Ibadan, Nigeria. (unpublished).

An extremely interesting study on meat consumption in three different communities in southwest and southeast Nigeria. A total of 61 households were interviewed. Consumption of fish, bushmeat and snails is reviewed. Information on the frequency of consumption (per household), the quantity and prices of meat, and the source of supply (e.g. market, bush, home-production) are all recorded. Information on general economic indicators (e.g. house construction material), taboos and practices is also presented.

The data from this study has not yet been analysed, however, a few conclusions can be drawn. In general, domestic livestock (goats and chickens) is consumed a few times a year on special occasions. In a few households beef is regularly consumed. Generally, dried fish is the most commonly consumed meat. In the Imo community snails are regularly consumed (several times a week in season) by more than a third of the community, and are consumed by more than two thirds of the community on at least a monthly basis. In the same community bushmeat is consumed less frequently (only about 20% of the households consume bushmeat on a monthly basis), although it is consumed occasionally by all households. In contrast, the households in Oyo State (Owu-Ile), consume bushmeat more regularly (80% of the households consume bushmeat at least several times a month), 20% consume it daily. In the third community, also in Oyo state, bushmeat and snail consumption is less regular. However, in all communities all households consume both snails and bushmeat occasionally.

113. Diouf, N.S. 1987. Les techniques artisanales de traitement et conservation du poisson au Senegal, Ghana, Bénin et Caméroun. Paper prepared for the FAO Fisheries Department, Dakar, Senegal.

Fish smoking is a common practice in each of the countries that is examined in this report. In Ghana, 60% of marketed fish is smoked. In Benin two thirds of the fish catch is smoked. In Cameroon, all fish from coastal fisheries (with exception of one species) is smoked. This report discusses different fish smoking techniques and the quantities of fuelwood required for each approach. Fuelwood requirements vary according to the length of processing and the desired intensity of heat. For example, one Cameroonian technique requires 3.015 kg/wood to smoke 1 kg of fish.

114. Direction de promotion de bois (Cameroon). 1987. “Note sur l’économie forestière nationale.” Nkolbisson, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

An analysis of the Cameroonian forest industry. Includes information on local wood processors and local markets.

115. Direction des Eaux et Forets (Senegal). 1982. Annual Report 1982-1983. Dakar, Senegal.

The Senegalese Forest Service gathers a considerable amount of information on the exploitation of secondary forest resources. The Forest Service collects a tax on poles, palm spines and leaves, as well as wood used for artisan woodworking (e.g. for coffins, tam-tams, chairs, beds, and canoes). Therefore, this report provides statistical estimates of forest-based artisan production by district (the numbers of beds, mats, baskets, chairs, etc. produced). The Casamance region (Guinea forest zone) produces the greatest quantity of processed and gathered forest products. For example, in 1982, an estimated 1.96 million kg of wild fruits were collected, 714,000 litres of palm oil were produced’, 47,500 litres of palm wine were produced, 23,000 kg of leaves and bark were collected, 582,000 brushes were produced, and 12,000 baskets were produced.

The records include statistics on products that entered Dakar each month of 1982; 502,000 kg of wild fruit, 26,000 kg of wild leaves, and 19,000 litres of palm oil. The report comments on the market prices for processed wood products, animal products (e.g. skin), wild fruits and leaves, palm oil, palm wine, and plant medicines. Also includes statistical estimates of the consumption of charcoal and fuelwood over the last ten years.

116. Direction des Eaux et Forets (Cameroon). 1985. Annual Report 1984-1985. Ministère d’Agriculture, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

This report provides some statistics on the export of medicinal plants (the most common secondary forest products collected from Forest Department land): the bark of Pygeum (Prunus africana) (729 tonnes), Voacanga sp. (30 tonnes), Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) (229 tonnes), Strophanthus sp. (25 tonnes) and ebony. These statistics only provide an indication of the quantities of secondary products “officially” extracted from forest reserves by large scale producers.

117. Direction du commerce intérieur (Cameroon). No date. Enquête des commerçants-artisans: resumé. Ministère du Commerce et de l’industrie, Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

This survey of small-scale commercial and artisan enterprises in urban areas of Cameroon reveals that 35% of these enterprises are in Douala and 26% are in Yaoundé. A total of 13,700 enterprises were surveyed and classified into 80 professional groups. Of these, 14% were found to be woodworking enterprises and 1% were sculptors. Seventeen percent of the total male employment was in woodworking. Most products were produced on order (9% were sold on street corners and a further 6% were sold in markets). Forty percent of those interviewed complained that they had difficulty purchasing raw materials.

118. Djoko, E., Eboutou, M.L., Rafidison, P. 1983. Plantes médicinales du Caméroun. Série No. 1. Cahiers de l’I.M.P.M. (Institut de Recherches Médicales et d’Etudes des Plantes Médicinales). Centre d’Etudes des Plantes Médicinales (MESRES), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Providing the results of interdisciplinary research on the useful medicinal plants of Cameroon, this report outlines 30 species describing them botanically, listing their habitat and ecology, traditional uses, and chemical composition. For example, Pterocarpus soyauxii’s bark is used in treatments of anaemia, bronchial problems, and with palm oil against many skin aliments. It contains tannins, sterrols and flavanoids. The effectiveness of the different medical treatments is not evaluated.

119. Dodah Ayernor, G.K. 1970. The sap of the palm, Elaeis guineensis for alcoholic fermentation. Student paper. Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana (unpublished).

In the Krobo district of Ghana farmers tap between 25 and 100 trees a season (which in this region involves felling the tree). This paper discusses the fermentation process of palm wine and spirits.

120. Dongmo, J. 1985. L’évolution du système agraire en pays Banen: étude géographique. Thesis, Department of Geography, Université de Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

This detailed geographic study explores the role farm and field trees and forest resources play in the lives of the Banen of southern Cameroon (between Douala and Bafoussam). It describes their agricultural and non-farm activities. And discusses the socio-cultural functions of forest products. Most “farm” trees are valued for their fruits, leaves, or seeds. Especially important are Canarium schweinfurthii, Vitex cierkowskii, Myrianthus muellerianthus, Pachylobus edulis, and Irvingia gabonensis. Some tree species are left in fields for protection and demarcation. For example, the tree Kigelia africana is thought to protect fields from trespassers. Most forest and tree products are gathered for home consumption rather than for sale in the markets. During the off-peak agricultural season, gathering is at its height.

Oil palms play a central role in the economic and social lives of the Banen. The study finds that the density of palms is a function of their distance from people’s houses (the highest densities are found nearest the houses). Palm oil is now used primarily for home consumption because of the low prices at the market level. Palm kernel oil is an important ingredient in many medical treatments, palm wine is commonly tapped. Often the bark of certain forest species is added to wine to speed fermentation or to give a desired flavoring. The greatest quantities of wine are tapped during the rainy season. Palms also provide the basic raw materials for household utensils and farm equipment, including transportation baskets, storage bins, drying racks, harvest baskets. The main species used for basketry is Hybophrynium braunianum. Fish traps are made from the bark of raphia palms. Mushrooms are even collected from the decomposing felled palm stems.

A description of the Banen hunting and fishing practices is also included. It notes that hunting has become more lucrative with the increased commercialisation of the area. Wild game is still in plentiful supply. And the flowers of Tephrosia vogelii are crushed, placed in a basket and put in the water as a fish poison. Snails, tortoises, caterpillars, larvae, and other insects are also commonly gathered during the rainy season. This study contains considerable descriptive information on the collection of wild game, but gives little indication of the extent to which they are exploited.

121. Duke, J.A. and Atchley, A.A. 1986. CRC handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 389.

Presents nutrient composition data for hundreds of plant species. It includes information on calories, protein, fat, fibre, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C.

122. Dwuma-Badu, D. 1983. Anti-infective agents from traditional useful medicinal plants in West Africa. In Essien et al. 1983. Anti-infective agents of higher plants origin: proceedings of VISOMP - Fifth International Symposium on Medicinal Plants. Drug Research and Production Unit, University of Ife, Nigeria and Organization of African Unity, pp. 32-40.

Discusses the results of pharmacological analyses of Piper guineense, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Xylopia aethiopica, Tiliacora funifera, Azadirachta indica, Enantia chlorantha, Combretum mucronatum and Mitragyna stipulosa. All are used by traditional healers for treating infections. Discusses the traditional use as well as the chemical composition of each species. For example, Enantia chlorantha is traditionally used for treating jaundice and skin ulcers and leprosy. The plant has been shown to have strong microbial action. It also contains constituents (analgestic and alkaloids) which have been found to reverse and repair liver damage. Its uses for treating skin diseases can also be explained by its chemical composition.

123. Dwuma-Badu, D. 1986. Some studies of the constituents of West African medicinal plants: problems, progress and potentials. The Ghana pharmaceutical Journal: 21-38.

Describes research undertaken by the Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Science and Technology at Kumasi in Ghana. They have focused their research on analysis of the chemical constituents of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Rhigiocarya racemifera, Triclisia sp., and Griffonia simplicifolia. C. sanguinolenta is traditionally used in treating malaria, urinary tract infections and wounds. Its chemical composition and biological activities indicate that it has great potential for treatment of bacterial and other diseases. It contains the compounds cryptolepine and quindoline. Detailed information on the chemical composition and biological activities of many commonly used plant medicines is provided. The author focuses on plants that contain anti-tumor constituents and muscle relaxants, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial, and anti-sickling agents.

124. Ekong, D.D.E. 1979. African medicinal plants under the microscope. UNESCO Courrier 7:17-19,42.

A general discussion of the drug potential of African plants used in traditional medicinal treatments. Draws examples from Nigerian research. For example, the roots of Fagara zanthoxyloides, traditionally used as chewing sticks for dental care, have been found to have anti-microbial and anti-sickling activity. Examination of the dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica, used in many traditional treatments, revealed that it contains an acid which is very active against certain bacteria.

125. Elletey, J.S. 1986. An architectural analysis of some traditional farms in some villages near Kumasi. Thesis (BSc), Institute of Renewable and Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

This study examines the role trees play on four farms in four different Ghanaian villages. It explores the farmers’ reasons for protecting or leaving trees on agricultural lands: to use as yam stakes, to improve crop yields, as food crops, for shade, for wood for carving, as timber, as live fences, for firewood and fodder. The largest trees are found on farm land not in fallow areas, although the diversity of species is greater in bush fallows. Some species are believed to positively (e.g. Rauwolfia vomitoria and cocoyams) or negatively (Ficus asperifolia and cocoyams) effect certain crops.

126. ENDA. 1987. Environnement africain: série plantes médicinales. Fiche technique. ENDA. (Environnement et Développement du Tiers Monde), Dakar, Senegal.

This series of leaflets on medicinal plants that are commonly used in West Africa includes plant descriptions, details of plants ecological distribution, ecological requirements, and means of propagation. It outlines the chemical composition of their active ingredients, and describes their traditional use in medicine. For example, Xylopia aethiopica, a tall, humid forest tree, is traditionally used for treating liver ailments and mouth infections (a decoction of the roots mixed with water is used as a mouthwash). The tree requires rich, humid soil, thrives in swampy conditions, and can be propagated from seed in good soil after six months gestation. The plant contains the essential cuminol, organic acids, alcohol, turpines, and anonacenes. Other species covered in include Cassia alata, Holarrhena floribunda, Borreria verticillata, Piliostygma reticulatum, Moringa oleifera, Calotropis procera and Euphorbia hirta.

127. Energy Initiatives for Africa. 1986. Etude de marché régionale sur le charbon de bois en Europe, Royaume Uni, et Afrique de l’Ouest. Energy/Development International (EDI), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

This report discusses charcoal production and marketing in Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire. It examines the potential for development of the export market to Europe and northern Africa. The economics of this trade including the selling prices at roadsides, in rural markets, and in Monrovia markets, as well as the costs of production and transportation are all discussed. The paper notes that charcoal production provides the second most important source of income in Liberian rural areas after agriculture. Fifty percent of the annual production is geared to the Monrovia market. It also states that, alternatively, in Côte d’Ivoire, charcoal is primarily used in urban areas. An estimated 190,000 tonnes are produced a year (600 tonnes are exported to France). The article concludes that the production costs for the African export market are prohibitive, but there is some potential for development of the European market.

128. Engel, A. et al. 1984. Promoting smallholder cropping systems in Sierra Leone: an assessment of traditional cropping systems and recommendations for the Bo-Pejehun rural development project. Institute of Socio-economics of Agricultural Development, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, West Germany.

The published results of this interdisciplinary 3 month field survey provide a great deal of detailed information on Sierra Leonian farming practices, off-farm activities (especially palm oil processing), markets for agricultural and processed products, and women’s role in the household (including their income earning activities). It describes the seasonality of different activities as well as the seasonal periods of hardship. The study finds that off-farm activities (oil processing, coffee and cocoa processing, hunting, fuelwood collection, palm wine tapping and artisanal activities) are very important. Nineteen percent of the farmers regard these activities as the most important in terms of labour and household benefit, another 14% mention them as the second most important activities. The analysis discusses the conflicting demands on farmer’s time and the extent to which palm fruit and kernels are processed. Often palm kernels and other products are put aside to process later in times of emergency cash needs.

129. Engelhard, P. and Robineau, L. 1981. La pharmacopée: composante de l’économique de la Santé au Senegal. ENDA (Environnement et Développement du Tiers Monde) Study No. 59, Dakar, Senegal.

In reviewing the health situation and health care systems in Senegal, this study examines Senegalese use of traditional medicine. It also provides an assessment of traditional medicine by “modern” practitioners. The study notes that 62% of “modern” Dakar doctors send patients to traditional practitioners. A list of common plant medicines is included.

130. Enti, A.A. 1987. Personal communication. Director, Forest Enterprises Inc. Accra, Ghana.

Enti owns Forest Enterprises Inc. which exports non-timber forest products, including a number of drug and food (sweeteners) gathered from forests throughout Ghana. In 1984 he exported £180,000 worth of forest medicines. Discussed the exploitation of NTFPs and the international markets and marketing of medicinal/food forest products. Currently his main business is with Tate and Lyle (a large food processing company in Great Britain) exporting the aryl’s of Thaumatococcus daniellii from which a sweetener is extracted. In 1987, he expected to export 110 tonnes of the semi-processed fruit of Thaumatococcus daniellii. Also supplies companies and research centers in the United States and Europe.

131. Enunwaonye, R.U. 1983. Economic analysis of fuelwood consumption in Enugu, Anambra State. MSc. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Examines the fuelwood market in Enugu analysing the people involved In the trade, and the seasonal differences in prices and profits. Notes that fuelwood producers generally do not sell fuelwood in the Enugu markets, rather they sell to retailers or middle-(wo)men. The main fuelwood producers are farmers, the majority of whom participate in this activity seasonally, during the agricultural slack period. Women are more involved in the transport of fuelwood than production for the market. There are nonetheless some regular fuelwood producers who often employ labourers. Those involved in the seasonal sale of fuelwood generally find the fuelwood on their land, whereas the regular producers gather wood from communal forest areas. Examines on-farm (producer) and market (retailer) fuelwood prices and costs and finds that the profit margin averages 28-54% for seasonal fuelwood producers, 19-26% for regular producers, and 47-71% for the retailers. Also includes information on fuelwood species preferences.

132. Essien, E., Adebanjo, A.O., Adewunmi. C.O. and Odebiyi, O.O. (eds.). 1983. Anti-infective agents of higher plants origin: proceedings of VISOMP - Fifth International Symposium on Medicinal Plants. Drug Research and Production Unit, University of Ife and Organization of African Unity, Ife-Ife, Nigeria.

A collection of papers investigating the plants that are used in traditional treatments against infections. Includes several interesting reports on molluscicidal plants. These plants contain substances which kill molluscs (e.g. snails), often the intermediary hosts of infectious diseases such as bilharzia. Reviews current pharmacological and chemical research on traditional plant medicines. Contains some useful information assessing the effectiveness of specific traditional cures. However, the information is geared to the potential drug market and not to assessing traditional medical practices per se.

133. Etienne, J. 1974. Artisanat traditionnelle en Côte d’Ivoire. Association Universitaire pour le Développement de l’Enseignement et de la Couture en Afrique et a Madagascar. Ministère de L’Enseignement et de la Formation Professionnelle, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

This detailed study of traditional artisan production throughout Ivory Coast provides descriptive information on wood, cane, raphia, cloth, dyeing and printing, pottery and metal artisanry. It describes the region, ethnic groups, objects fabricated, raw materials used, marketing and techniques of production for more than 200 activities. Describes the most commonly used objects including mortars and pestles, plates, household utensils, furniture, and musical instruments. Notes that basketry and other weaving activities are not specialised enterprises, that they are engaged in by most rural men. The most common raw materials for this sector are raphia palm, leaves, fibres and leaf spines, forest lianas, and the leaves of Thaumatococcus spp. Describes the different methods used by various ethnic groups to fabricate a multitude of household and agricultural products (e.g. harvest and transport baskets for coffee, cocoa, and cola nuts, crop dryers and crop storage containers, household utensils, and furniture).

Traditional clothes (cloth) are made from the bark of several forest trees. These are still important for traditional ceremonies and festive occasions. Discusses the natural dyes used in cloth printing enterprises (which are dominated by women). Certain traditional colours (indigo) are still commonly produced from forest plants. Traditional wood-based artisan activities have been most affected by modernisation.

The commercialisation of wood-based artisanry has led to a dichotomy between products fashioned for tourists and urban markets and those produced for everyday use. Most rural men still produce the wooden objects needed within the household.

134. Ewusi, K. 1986. Statistical tables of the economy of Ghana 1950-1985. Adwensa Publications, Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

These statistics give some indication of the importance of forest resources in the fishing sector. They include information on the Ghanaian fishing fleet.

In 1962 an estimated 78% of the total fish catch was caught from dugout canoes, in 1982 83% of the total catch was caught from dugout canoes. The number of dugout canoes has remained approximately the same over the last twenty years (8,700) while the number of motorized canoes has increased (from 1,700 in 1961 to 7,600 in 1970). The number of motorized fishing vessels has also increased, although dugout wood canoes still remain the most common boats. The tables also include some production statistics for palm kernel, shea nut, copra and cola nut.

135. FAO. 1986. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Forestry Paper No. 67, FAO, Rome, Italy.

Presents monographs of 40 species of trees and shrubs used as medicines. Includes information on the botany, silviculture, ecological distribution, chemical properties, pharmaceutical and traditional uses for each species. A bibliography for each species is included.

136. Faure, J. and Vivien, J. 1980. Intérêt de toutes les ressources ligneuses et non-ligneuses tirées de la foret par les populations locales. Etude 3. Etude préparée pour le Société SEDA (Yaoundé) sur l’aménagement des forets littorales de Campo et Edea, Cameroun (unpublished). (Study prepared for SEDA, a consulting firm as part of a larger study on the development potential of the Littoral region and its forest management.)

An excellent study on the local use of forest resources in eight rural villages and a pygmy settlement. The study examines the uses of a gamut of resources including fuelwood, house construction supplies, foods, medicines (particularly those commonly used by villagers without healer assistance) and other vegetative products, aquatic and terrestrial animals. It also assesses the zones of harvest or gathering for various forest products. The paper notes that the distances traveled in search of medicines and wild game were considerable (more than 20 km). The paper includes an estimate of the quantities of wood used for fuel and house construction.

In all surveyed villages people hunted and fished for home consumption. In some villages wild game was found on the market. The authors note that bushmeat and fish provided the only regular source of meat to households in the region.

In a village where access to forest resources had recently been taken away, the numbers of species identified by villagers as essential far outnumbered those identified in other villages. The authors argue that as village access to forest resources has declined, awareness of what is(was) used and depended upon has heightened (see Section 1.2, conclusion).

137. Federal Department of Forestry (Nigeria). 1987. Wildlife utilization and wildlife values in Nigeria. Paper presented at the International Symposium and Conference: Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 6-13 October. Sponsored by FAO and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation.

In Nigeria, wildlife is most used and valued as food in some communities it also features in traditional religious and customary ceremonies. This paper reviews the importance of bushmeat (listing the important food species) and discusses current trends in price and consumption patterns. The ever growing demand for bushmeat in urban areas and the dwindling supply throughout the country (caused by changes in land use and over-exploitation) have caused great increases in bushmeat prices in the last few years (especially in urban markets). In some regions the price has increased as much as 400%. In many areas it has become a luxury item. Farmers generally sell what they catch to wholesale traders or on the roadside. Only what is not sold, or what is left from dressing the carcass is consumed by the rural poor. The bushmeat trade is highly specialised in most areas. This report presents data on bushmeat consumption from the 1960’s.

138. Ferry, G. 1974. L’univers végétal dans les contes Tenda (Senegal). In Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.). Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes III, SELAF (Société d’Etude Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France) 42-43:21-37, SELAF, Paris, France.

This paper examines the plants which feature in myths and stories in Tenda (southern Senegal) tradition. It includes a description of over 300 species. It compares the common day to day use of plants with their symbolic role in myths and stories. For example, the tree Saba senegalensis is often associated with circumcision: the crusted seeds are used for treating circumcision wounds. The fruits are eaten and the wood is used as fuelwood on festive occasions. In stories the tree is portrayed as a provider. Its fruit is consumed in famine or to help care for the needy (such as an orphan).

139. Forestry Department (Ghana). 1975. Annual report of the Forestry Department, Ministry of Lands and Mineral Resources, Accra, Ghana.

Includes statistical information on non-timber forest products collected from forest reserves. In 1975, 64,700 cedis worth of produce were recorded (includes fuelwood, fruits, leaves, poles and chewing sticks). These figure are not thought to be reliable. Also includes data on the export of some products including cork, cola nuts, gums and resins.

140. Franqueville, A. 1972. Les relations villes-campagnes sur la route au Nord de Yaoundé (Cameroon). Cahiers ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaine 9(3):337-387.

This article includes interesting information on rural-urban marketing in southern Cameroon. Yaoundé provides a market for wild fruits, plant medicines, caterpillars, fuelwood, charcoal and cultivated and cash-crop products. Though there is a demand for wild game, supply has dwindled and it, therefore rarely appears in the markets.

The evolution of housing is also discussed; poto-poto houses are still most common (mud, poles and palm leaf stems). They are increasingly “ameliorated” with cement wall plastering, and in cases of wealthier residents, replaced by cement houses.

141. Franqueville, A. and Tissandier, J. 1975. Note sur révolution de l’habitat rural dans le sud du Cameroun. Communication au séminaire sur l’environnement rural et l’habitat en Afrique intertropicale. ORSTOM, Paris, France.

Rural houses in southern Cameroon were “traditionally” made from leaves, bark, palm leaves and leaf spines (“bamboo”) and wood. During the colonial administration, residents were forced to change their house construction to “poto-poto” (now often considered “traditional”). The poto-poto house is the most common type of rural housing in this region. The poles are young tree stems; Coula edulis is the preferred species for housing poles because it is termite resistant. The wattle cross slats are generally made of the leaf spines of raphia palm. Rooves are also built using palm fronds. The main change in the style of construction since independence has been the introduction of metal sheet rooves, and cement in the case of wealthy villagers. Generally, the men and women have separate houses men’s houses are larger and more “modern”, as the focus of home improvements is on the man’s house.

142. Fyle, M. 1981. Commerce and entrepreneurship: the Sierra Leone hinterland in the 19th century. Institute of African Studies, Occasional Paper 2, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Discusses the trade between southern (e.g. palm oil) and northern (e.g. parkia locust bean, calabash, shea butter nut) regions of the country. Discusses how Colonial takeover has changed internal trade traditions.

143. Gartlan, S. 1987. Korup regional management plan: conservation and development in the Ndian division of Cameroon. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and Earth Life, Godalming, England (mimeograph).

This background study for the Korup conservation project includes information on agricultural and other economic activities of the region. It includes a description of the ecology of the region, the forest animal and plant resources as well as local uses of these resources. The area is sparsely populated and markets are generally poorly developed. Most of the trade of forest resources has been with Nigeria.

Included in this report is an assessment of the resources of villages situated within the park’s proposed boundaries. It provides a detailed view of the on-farm and village trees (included are coffee, cocoa, oil palm, coconut, raphia palm, citrus, mango. Persea sp., Dacryodes sp., cola, calabash, and breadfruit). For example, there are more than 40,000 oil palms in the ten villages surveyed; there are 4,000 Dacryodes sp. (valued for their fruit). The forest and tree resources that are most exploited at the household level include the fruit of Ricinodendron heudelotii, raphia palm wine and oil, and Irvingia gabonensis. In one village the seeds of Irvingia gabonensis are collected from the forest, dried, and carried to Nigeria for sale (where one bucket fetched FCFA 10,000 in 1986).

Regional trade is also examined. The most important trade items include the seeds of Irvingia gabonensis, building poles, chewing sticks, bushmeat, and distilled palm alcohol. Since the “closing” of the border in 1984, Nigerian trade has diminished. Chewing sticks (from Garcinia sp.), raphia canes, and building poles are all used in local villages and traded in the regional market. The alcoholic drink made by distilling the sap of palm species is also a major item of trade in the regional market.

Nine percent of the meat consumed in Cameroon is bushmeat. Hunting and trapping are common during the rainy season and bushmeat, especially porcupine and duiker, are also sold in the regional market. Hunting is carried out in all villages. The regional market price for bushmeat has increased 117% in the last four years, reflecting its decrease in availability.

Finally, the paper describes housing styles, and notes that the majority of houses are still of the traditional variety (e.g. thatched roofs, mud and wattle, or bark).

144. Gastellu, J.W. 1980. L’arbre ne cache pas la foret, ou: usus, fructus et abusus. Cahiers d’ORSTOM. Série Sciences Humaines 17(3-4):279-283.

This piece provides an interesting discussion of the function of trees in African life: economics, climate, religion, and law (land). It focuses on the role of trees in traditional land rights issues and compares traditional tree rights in Senegal (Serer) and Côte d’Ivoire (Agni). In general, the use of forest/tree products over several years gives the user the rights to the land occupied by the tree. Someone who plants a tree has the sole rights to the products of the tree.

145. Gbile, Z.O. 1979. Exploitation of Nigeria’s economic non-timber plant species in the wild: progress and prospects. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria (unpublished).

Reviews the available research and information on some commonly used plant medicines. Discusses species with hypotensive, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-sickling and anti-malarial action, as well as those used in the treatment of asthma, hepatitis, and worms. Also discusses plants valued as sweeteners and dyes.

146. Gbile, Z.O. 1983. Indigenous and adapted African vegetables. In Proceedings of the Sixth African Symposium on Horticultural Crops, Ibadan, Nigeria, 19-25 July 1981. Sponsored by the Horticultural Society of Nigeria (HORSTON) and the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology. (Printed in Acta horticulturae 123:71-80 (December).)

Discusses indigenous vegetables species consumed in Nigeria. Presents information on the nutrient value and medicinal properties of each species. Includes a description of some farm and forest species as well as some herbaceous forest plants. For example, the seeds of Ceiba pentandra, a rain forest tree, are used in soups, its young leaves are cooked as vegetables. The leaves of Struchium sparganophora are gathered in bush areas especially during the dry season and cooked as a vegetable. The fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia are used as a laxative. The fruit of Solanum aethiopium are used in remedies for colic; its young leaves are used as alight sedative. Some forest and bush species discussed include Vernonia amygdalina, Gnetum sp., Irvingia gabonensis and Ceratotheca sesamoides.

147. Gbile, Z.O. 1986. Ethnobotany, taxonomy and conservation of medicinal plants. Paper presented at the workshop on medicinal plants. University of Ife, Ife-Ife, Nigeria (unpublished).

Reviews current work being conducted at different research centers throughout Nigeria on the uses, taxonomy, chemical composition and pharmacological potential of some plants used in traditional medicine. Provides information on some of the species that are under investigation including: Morinda lucida, Hunteria umbellata, Annona senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, Alstonia boonei, Picralima nitida, Kigelia africana, Newbouldia laevis, Telfairia occidentalis, Carica papaya, Dioscorea spp., Alchornea cordifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Azadirachta indica, and Fagara sp. For example, Xylopia aethiopica’s fruit is used in many medicinal treatments because of its preservative properties and their broad anti-bacterial action. The powdered dried seeds of Picralima nitida are marketed as anti-malarials. The bark of Alstonia boonei contains many alkaloids and echitamine which is believed to explain its use in the treatment of fevers, dizziness, and high blood pressure. It is also traditionally used to treat asthma, snake bites, worms and impotence.

148. Gbile, Z.O. 1988. Personal communication. Research Scientist, Forest Ecology and Conservation Division, Forest Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Discussed commonly exploited medicinal plants from the Ibadan region. Also discussed the food resources commonly garnered from forests in the southwestern regions of Nigeria.

149. Gbile, Z.O. and Adensina, S.K. 1987. Nigerian flora and its pharmaceutical potentials. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 19(I):1-17.

Herbal medicines are still commonly employed in most regions of Nigeria. Herbalists may use both psychological and chemical remedies (plant products). Preparations from leaves, roots, bark, flowers, fruit and seeds are employed in a variety of ways. Plants that are traditionally used as sweeteners, anti-infectives, molluscicides, anti-malarials, laxatives, cardiovascular and nervous disease treatments, proteolytic ferments, steroidal alkaloids, anti-tumour and anti-sickling drugs are all discussed with a view towards their pharmaceutical potential. The authors combine information on their traditional uses, chemical constituents and potential efficacy. For example, the stem bark of several species of Khaya (the genus of African mahogany) are used in many fever and malaria remedies. The chemical composition includes scopoletin and scoparone making these species potentially valuable ingredients for anti-malarial drugs. Includes a good bibliography.

150. Genelly, R. 1968. Interim Report to the Government of Ghana on wildlife conditions. Prepared for the FAD Forestry Department, FO:TA/GHA (unpublished).

Discusses the condition of wildlife resources in Ghana. Includes a review of conservation areas and issues. Also includes a discussion of wild animals as a food source for rural populations. Up to 80% of the protein consumed by Ghanaians is derived from wild mammals, birds, reptiles and snails. This study provides statistical estimates of bushmeat consumption. One bushmeat dealer traded 6 tonnes of game over a 15 month period in 1966 (a value of £1,300).

151. Getahun, A. 1980. IITR/IDRC agroforestry project: annual report, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.

Discusses the different farming systems found in the southern Nigerian project area. Tree crops cover 64% of farm land area. The trees commonly found on farms are discussed (e.g. Elaeis guineense, Cola sp., Vernonia amygdalina, Ficus sp., Tectona grandis, Irvingia gabonensis, and Dacryodes edulis).

152. Gill, L.S. and Akinwumi, C. 1986. Nigerian folk medicine: practices and beliefs of the Ondo people. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18:257-266.

The use of plant medicines is both common and widespread among the Ondo. This article describes 48 plant species used in traditional Ondo treatments. It includes a description of their uses, the plant parts used, as well as biodynamic notes. The authors found that 14 species contained alkaloids, and that 34 species had local actions.

153. Gollnhofer, O., Salée, P. and Sillans, R.J. 1975. Art et artisanat Tsogho, Gabon. Travaux et Documents de l’ORSTOM 42, ORSTOM, Paris, France.

A study of the art and artisanry of the Tsogho from Gabon which includes a great deal of detailed information on the material used to create and construct different objects. Describes a multitude of products made from forest resources: objects that are used in transport and agriculture, religious and social ceremonies, objects used to make household utensils, build temples and make musical instruments. Rattan is the most widely used material for all household items including crop dryers, baskets, mats, furniture, food containers and kitchen utensils. Notes that most fish traps are still made from local materials.

In Gabon specific objects are often made from a particular species. The baskets that are used for fish drying are made “from the stems of Marantochloa ramosissima, baskets for drying peppers are made with the leaf petioles of Megaphrynium macrostachyum, while larger transport baskets are made with the bark of Cleistopholis glauca. Knives are made from Diospyros sanzaminika; ropes that are used for climbing aim trees (for wine tapping) are made from the forest liana Entada mannii; mallets used for bark extraction (for traditional medicines) are made from Sindora klaineana; Marantochloa ramosissima leaves are used to make the filters for palm oil processing. Finally, mortars are made from Mitragyna ciliata and pestles are made from Randia acuminata. Also notes that sculptures and figures and masks are made from specific species of wood. Includes a description of the plants used for special dyes and paints.

154. Gorog-Karady, V. 1970. L’arbre justicier. In Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.). 1980. Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes africains, SELAF No. 20:23-62.

The tree is often a symbol of justice and judge in African stories. This study explores the tree’s image in 22 stories from different African cultures. In each case, an evil deed is followed by atonement in which the tree plays a role. The tree can give life or death, or insure a hero’s survival. In the stories it generally intervenes to serve as mediator and judge in situations where man is not able to solve a conflict which involves a breach of traditional societal rules.

155. Goussé, A. 1987. Personal communication. Forester at SODEFOR (Société de Développement Forestière), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

SODEFOR is in charge of forest management in Côte d’Ivoire. Goussé discusses the management of Yapo National Forest (near Abidjan), which has both plantations and natural forest. Currently the only returns from the forest have come from the harvest of secondary products, most notably fuelwood, poles, chewing sticks, matchsticks, and ornamental plants. The returns from secondary forest products in 1987 were approximately FCFA 6,750,000 (US$ = FCFA 260). This income has helped defray the costs of management.

156. Gouterel, R. 1979. Actualisation de la pharmacopie traditionnelle et prospection des plantes médicinales en République Populaire de Guinée. Directeur de Recherche au Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Guinea.

This paper discusses commonly used traditional plant medicines. It includes information on methods of medicine preparation, the plant species for which export markets exist and the quantities of plant materials that are exported to foreign multinationals. Among the important exported species are Combretum micranthum (exported to France, where it is processed and used as a diuretic and in treatments for hepatitis), Cola nitida, C. acuminata (exported to France - 20 tonnes/year, where it is processed into a tonic) Harpagophytum procumbens (exported to Germany, where it is processed into medicine against rheumatism). Primus africanum (exported to France), Rauwolfia vomitoria (the source of reserpine, exported to Europe and Japan), and Datura metel (a source of tropane and scopomaine, exported to Germany).

157. Grivetti, L., Frentzel, C.J., Ginsberg, K., Howell. K., and Ogle, B.M. 1980. Agricultural development: present and potential role of edible wild plants. Part 2: Sub-saharan Africa. USAID, Washington D.C., USA.

This study reviews the literature that examines wild plant consumption by different African populations. It contains an excellent bibliography and is particularily comprehensive in the fields of historical botany, nutrition, and medicine. The authors conclude that wild plants have historically been an important component of many Africans’ diets and agricultural development planners should explore the potential for conservation and development of wild plant resources.

158. Grivetti, L., Frentzel, C.J., Ginsberg, K.E., Howell. K.L., and Ogle, B.M. 1987. Bush foods and edible weeds of agriculture: perspectives on dietary uses of wild plants in Africa, their role in maintaining human nutritional status and implications for agricultural development. In Akhtar (ed.). Health and disease in tropical Africa. Harwood, London, Great Britain, pp. 51-81.

Provides an extensive review of peoples’ consumption of wild plants in different regions of Africa. It draws on information from ethno-botanical, archaeological, anthropological and nutrition studies. It demonstrates that wild plants are essential components of many Africans’ diets, especially in periods of seasonal shortage. The authors suggest that by maintaining and increasing current use of locally available wild foods the economic and nutritional situation of rural Africans might improve.

159. Hall, D. 1988. Biotechnology for rural Africa: high value natural product development as an integral program for tropical forest conservation in Africa. Report prepared for the FAO Agricultural Industries Division, Rome, Italy (unpublished).

This report review the feasibility of plans to develop high value natural products (e.g. essential oils) using the Korup (Cameroon) conservation as a case example. It reviews a range of plants that are used to produce medicines, dyes and foods and describes the use of some forest fruits and nuts such as Sechium edule and Dacryodes edulis, and leaf vegetables such as Gnetum sp.. Species that are used as spices and stimulants are also identified. For example, the seeds of Afrostyrax lepidophyllus are used to give a garlic taste while Tetrapleura tetraptera leaves are used as soup flavouring. Some forest plant parts are used to make dyes: the bark of Pterocarpus osun for a red dye, the bark of Enantia chlorantha for a yellow dye.

The study describes a range of plants that contain ingredients that are anti-malarial, anti-diarrhea, anti-heminthic, molluscicidal, anti-amoebic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and cardiac glycosides. And it notes that there is an export market for some medicinal plant products. In 1984, 728 tonnes of Prunus africana, 229 tonnes of Pausinystalia johimbe, and 30.5 tonnes of Voacanga africana were exported, according to the Cameroon Forestry Department.

160. den Hartog, V. and deVos, A. 1973. The use of rodents as food in tropical Africa. Nutrition Newsletter 11(2):1-14.

Discusses the use of rodents as food throughout the world, focusing on the potential for development in Africa. Presents nutrition and consumption information on the most commonly consumed rodents including grasscutters, giant rats, squirrels and porcupines. The authors note that reliable information on consumption of different rodent species is not available, and that most studies of bushmeat do not include small animals (especially rodents) which are often consumed by children. The article does, however, present a summary of the available information on bushmeat consumption in West Africa. A study conducted in rural Togo estimates that the per capita consumption of bushmeat ranges from 0.5 to 12 g daily. Some of the cultural taboos associated with rodent consumption in different communities are also mentioned.

161. Herren-Gemmill, B. 1988. Personal communication. Currently completing PhD research at the University of California, Davis, USA. Studying the utilization, yields, and importance of bush fallow products in the rural economy of southwestern Nigeria.

Herren-Gemmill compares the fallow management practices of farmers in the derived savanna/forest border and the forest zone. She finds that farmers in the forest zone leave a broad range of forest tree emergents standing when land is cleared for crops. Similarly, she notes that a great number and variety of trees are allowed to germinate and grow during the cultivation period. Alternatively, farmers from the savanna/forest border preserve primarily commercial tree crops. Oil palm is protected equally in both regions. And standing trees serve several different purposes: fruit and leaves are harvested for home consumption and market sale, yam stakes (common species include Alchornea laxiflora, Funtumia sp., and Combretum sp.), timber, firewood, chewing sticks, browse, and medicines are also all derived for use. Common forest fallow species include Chlorophora excelsa, Chrysophyllum sp., Newbouldia laevis, Triplochiton sp., Cola sp., Irvingia gabonensis, Ficus exasperata, Alstonia boonei, Elaeis guineensis and Alchornea laxiflora. Herren-Gemmill is also conducting research on the income earned from forest fallow products, the relative density of trees in fallows and on farm fields, fallow successional dynamics in two land clearings, and cultivation practices (mechanical and manual) and selective versus non-selective weeding.

162. Hladik, C. et al. 1987. Se nourrir en foret équatoriale: anthropologie alimentaire différentielle des populations des régions forestières humides d’Afrique. Research Team Report 263, Centre Nationale de Recherches Scientifiques, Paris, France.

A comparative interdisciplinary study of the food uses of forest resources by different ethnic groups in the equatorial forests of West and Central Africa (includes information from Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, and Zaire). Agriculturalists, fishing people, and hunter-gatherers are all studied. Describes the forest resources, gathering, hunting, fishing, agricultural systems, food preparation, food consumption, food values (cultural), physical and biomedical data, as well as information on rituals and food taboos.

The seasonal variations in both the prevalence and consumption of different forest foods and agricultural products are examined. Compares this resource data with biomedical data on the seasonal variation of nutritional status in the different ethnic groups. Provides detailed estimates of daily consumption of forest and cultivated foods. For example, in the village, during the rainy season, the Ntomba consume an average 37 g/day of bushmeat, while in the dry season they consume an average of only 6 g/day of bushmeat (this compares to 11 g/day of domestic meat consumed in the rainy season and 0.4 g/day consumed in the dry season). Notes that bushmeat’s dietary importance stems from the calories it provides (e.g. some highly-prized bushmeat species are preferred for their fatty consistencies). Domestic meat is only consumed on festive occasions, whereas bushmeat supplies a regular source of food. Caterpillars are generally consumed in the villages rather than forest camps. Gives details of both food preservation and some techniques of traditional food preparation. Also provides information on the hunting techniques that the different ethnic groups employ. The availability of different game species is highly seasonal, hunting techniques also vary according to season.

Also discusses some of the forest foods which feature in cultural festivities and social rituals (e.g. palm wine, giant pangolin Manis gigantia), and some of the food taboos for different people within the community (e.g. pregnant Yasa women are encouraged to eat Prodicticus potto and prohibited from eating Varanus niloticus).

163. Hodasi, J. 1984. Some observations on the edible giant land snails of West Africa. World Animal Review 52:24-28.

A synopsis of the biology of different species of land snails. They are such highly prized foods that they are being over-exploited and in some areas are fast becoming endangered species. They are good sources of protein, iron and other minerals. Attempts are being made to cultivate them.

164. Holsworth, W.H. 1970. Wildlife management. Department of Forestry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This paper reviews the status of wildlife, wildlife consumption, and wildlife legislation in Nigeria. It assesses the potential for tourism development, export of wild animals and animal products, as well as the current status of bushmeat consumption. Bushmeat is especially valued in the western and mid-western States. The report estimates that the total value of bushmeat in southern Nigeria is 9,000,000 naira annually. Fish and shell fish contribute the greatest amount of animal protein to the Nigerian diet. The paper asserts that naturally occurring animal protein (fish and bushmeat) contributes 4% of the gross domestic product of Nigeria. Includes both tables on the annual consumption of local and imported meats in different regions in the south and statistics on the export of wild animals and derived products.

165. ICRAF and the Cameroonian Agroforestry Task Force. 1986. Proposal for agroforestry research in the humid tropical lowlands of Cameroon, ‘Nkolbisson, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

This analysis of farming systems in humid regions of Cameroon presents the results of the first stage of a Diagnosis and Design evaluation. It includes an analysis of the functions of farm trees: food, fodder, oil, medicine, building material, shade for cocoa, and soil fertility restoration.

166. Ijalana, S.A. 1983. Economic analysis of agroforestry in the lowland rainforest zone of Ondo state, Nigeria. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This analysis of farming systems in Ondo state estimates the costs and returns of agroforestry in the region. Analysis focuses on the incorporation of Gmelina sp. and Leucaena sp. However, the study also identifies indigenous on farm trees and describes their uses and values. Oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) are the most popular and widely distributed trees, because of their income earning potential. Fruit trees are of growing importance. Generally trees are not planted, but seedlings are selectively managed. Nonetheless some species were found to be planted including: Nauclea diderrichii, Tectona grandis, Terminalia superba, Mansonia altissima, and Irvingia gabonensis. These trees are valued for land demarcation (trees with long gestation periods are favoured), poles, fuelwood, fruits and seeds. Most on-farm trees are wildlings having been left to grow. They are especially valued for their fruit, fuelwood, shade and as yam stakes (especially Rauwolfia vomitoria). Trees are used for constructing yam storage structures. The leaves of Mitragyna ciliata are especially valued for storing cola nuts. Some information on agricultural tools is included as is some data on the market returns for some tree crops (e.g. cola nuts sell for 975 naira a tonne compared with 378 naira a tonne for yams). The paper finds that on average, a farming household owns two hoes, three cutlasses and five baskets.

167. INADES, 1984. La medicine traditionnelle. Agripromo No. 44. Yaoundé, Cameroon.

This issue of Agripromo reviews traditional medicinal practices. It includes a description of the medicinal uses of papaya (the roots, fruit, and leaves are used against worms, coughs, headaches, constipation, malaria, jaundice, cuts, abcesses, and to stop bleeding). It also describes other plant treatments which use on-farm plants. The article discusses the attributes and problems of traditional medicine and includes interviews with traditional healers. One of whom is a traditional practitioner from Burundi who integrates his activities with the modern medical system. He’s a specialist in liver problems, diabetes and bronchial disorders. He treats, an average 40-50 people a day, who come from all over the country. He employs 120 different medicinal plants and notes that most of them are rare during the dry season. In his interview he discusses the problems associated with his profession. The piece also reports on the work of the union of traditional healers in Cameroon, which has approximately 3,000 members and the journal recounts some readers’ experiences with traditional medicine.

168. Ingles, A. 1988. Rural women and urban men: fuelwood conflicts and forest sustainability in Sussex village. Sierra Leone. GDI Social Forestry Network Paper 6C, Overseas Development Institute, London, Great Britain.

An interesting discussion of the conflict between local and urban demand for forest products. The author notes that fuelwood is used for the local fish processing industry. There are 15 fish-smoking enterprises in the area, which consume approximately 70 tonnes of fuelwood a year (an average 27.3 kg of fuelwood are used per fish drying session). The preferred fuelwood species are Ochthocosmus africanus, Humerocardia sp., Vitex doniana, Anisophyllea laurina coconut husks and palm fronds. However, woody species are most often used. Fuelwood provides the sole source of energy for cooking in the community. An average 7.75 kg per household per day are used (thus, approximately 142 tonnes annually for the community as a whole).

Fuelwood used in the household is collected by women, who travel about 1 km to collect and cut wood. They collect only dry dead wood during the dry season and cut small coppicing species leaving several coppice shoots. By comparison, the urban woodcutters cut any species throughout the year leaving no regeneration. Generally it is absentee landowners who give urban woodcutters rights to felling, otherwise it is carried on illegally. The author concludes that the urban woodcutters are overexploiting the community’s forest resource, depriving them of future energy resources.

169. Irvine, F. 1952. Supplementary and emergency food plants of West Africa. Economic Botany 6(1):23-40.

Irvine explores the ways in which forest food resources are exploited by West African populations. He distinguishes between plants eaten only in times of emergency and famine, those regularly collected but not marketed, those gathered and marketed, those that are “tended” in the “bush”, and those that are cultivated food plants. The article focuses on the emergency and subsistence uses of wild species. He notes that the wild plants that are consumed in famine periods are different from those eaten regularly. Famine foods are more energy rich and often require lengthy processing. For example, baobab leaves are regularly consumed in sauces, so too are its fruits in season. However, its roots are consumed in emergency periods. Irvine also notes that the consumption of wild animals may increase in famine periods. A great deal of detailed descriptive information on wild plant species’ food use is presented. However, it only provides a general indication of the extent to which the plants are used (e.g. emergency or regularly). The majority of species that are discussed are found in the forest zone.

170. Irvine, F. 1956. The edible cultivated and semi-cultivated leaves of West Africa. Qualitas Plantarum et Materiaea Vegetabilis 2:35-42.

Identifies more than 150 species whose leaves are regularly consumed in stews, sauces and as condiments. A significant number are wild species (some are from forest areas).

171. Irvine, F. 1961. Woody plants of Ghana with reference to their uses. London Crown Agents, London, Great Britain.

Describes more than 700 commonly exploited wild and cultivated species from Ghana. Also included are nutrition composition tables for food products derived from 80 species of plants. Botanical descriptions are accompanied by detailed information on cultural, economic and dietary uses and values.

172. Isawumi, M.A. 1978. Nigerian chewing sticks. Nigerian Field 43(2,3,4):50-58, 111-121, 161-170, 44(1):21-28.

Chewing sticks are used by the majority of Nigerians throughout the country. They are produced from the root, bark or stem of 24 different tree species. They are marketed daily throughout the country, although certain species are specific to certain ecological regions. For example, Massularia acuminata chewing sticks are most common in Ogun, Oyo, and Ondo States, whereas Garcinia cola is most popular in Cross Rivers State. The species used for chewing sticks have been found to have anti”-microbial effects, thereby providing an effective product for dental care. A list and description of species is included in this article.

173. Jahn, S.A.A., Musnad, H.A., and Burgstaller, H. 1986. The tree that purifies water: cultivating multipurpose Moringaceae in the Sudan. Unasylva 38(152):23-29.

This article describes the many uses of Moringa sp. trees both in Africa and Asia. Moringa produce vegetables, spice, oil, medicine, fodder, bee fodder, and firewood. They are also used as windshields, nemoticides and water coagulants or clarifiers. The crushed seeds of Moringa olifera have traditionally been used by Sudanese women to clarify water. And the author confirms that doses of 30 to 200 mg./litre (depending on the quality of the water) of powdered seed can clarify turbid water to tap water quality within a few hours. The elimination of turbidity eliminates 98-99% of indicator bacteria, thus providing an excellent low-cost water treatment system. These trees are often planted around house compounds or in agricultural fields. The article describes propagation techniques for different Moringa species.

174. Jedrej, M.C. 1986. Dan and Mende masks: a structural comparison. Africa 56(1):71-81. Journal of the International Africa Institute, London, Great Britain.

Discusses the roles that masks play in different ceremonies. They may act as peacemakers. They represent the spirits of the forest, and in some cases may reflect different people in society. Masks may be passed on through generations. And more important, spirit masks are never traded. In some cases specific trees or wood qualities are sought for mask-making.

175. Jeffrey, S. 1977. How Liberia uses its wildlife. Oryx 14(2):168-173.

In Liberia wildlife is valued most because it provides food. Trade in animal products (e.g. skins and ivory) is common but bushmeat provides the main source of meat (excluding fish) for most Liberians. It is sold at most markets and along roads. However, wildlife populations are increasingly being over-exploited as access to wild habitats improves (through new roads), firearms become more common, and markets for bushmeat expand. This article presents data on the predominance of the different species sold by roadside vendors; duikers (especially Cephalophus maxwelli, C. dorsilis and C. zebra) and monkey (Colobus badius) are the most commonly marketed. The article includes data on the average prices of bushmeat; generally bushmeat is cheaper than domesticated meat. The piece also presents data on the returns from the skin and ivory trade.

176. Johnson, D. 1987. A study of some useful species of plants with particular reference to local dye plants in Sierra Leone. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Sierra Leone, Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Sierra Leone (unpublished).

The first part of this thesis describes 52 plant species that are used throughout the household. It describes plants that are used for making household equipment and utensils, fishing and hunting equipment, local crafts and ornaments. It also describes those used only on social occasions.

The second part describes plant species that are used as dyes. Each entry includes the dye colour, the plant part used, the methods used for dye extraction, as well as the traditional uses for specific colours. For example, the bark of Rhyzophora racemosa produces a red dye, the seeds of Garcinia kola produce an orange dye, the bark of Leucaena sp. is used to produce a pink dye. The leaves of Lonchocarpus cyanescens produce the indigo dye used in traditional Gara cloth production (still an important small industry).

177. Johnson, E. and Johnson, T.J. 1976. Economic plants in a rural Nigerian market. Economic Botany 30:375-381.

Presents the results of a year-long market survey examining the fresh plants sold in a rural Nigerian market. The authors assess species’ availability, and the frequency and seasonalities in the sale of 58 wild and cultivated foods. Among the most commonly sold products were the nut of Irvingia gabonensis, the fruit of Dacryodes edulis; other popular species included Cola acuminata, Cola nitida, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Tetracarpidium conophorum and Thaumatococcus daniellii. The fact that farm and forest foods were sold with relative frequency gives an indication of their local value.

178. Kamara, J.N. 1986. Firewood energy in Sierra Leone: production, marketing and household use patterns. Studies No. 9, Verlag Weltarchiv, Hamburg, West Germany.

An excellent study on the use and trade of fuelwood in both urban and rural Sierra Leone. Includes detailed quantitative information on the production of fuelwood for household consumption and sale in two rural regions. Examines the returns to fuelwood production and trading at the retail and wholesale levels. Includes information on the cost and returns of urban fuelwood marketing in three urban centers.

Firewood is the primary source of energy in both the rural and urban areas of Sierra Leone. It provides an important source of income for many rural farmers (especially women) and urban traders (also predominantly women). Most traders are involved only part time (except in Freetown where the majority are full time fuelwood traders). The fuelwood market is located in villages near roads. More than half of the fuelwood that is collected by households is sold. Information on fuelwood’s contribution to household income and farm processing is also included (13% of the household firewood energy is expended in this manner).

179. Kamara, M. 1978. L’artisanat traditionnel: son importance économique et socio-culturelle en Côte d’Ivoire. Département des Sciences Sociales Appliquées. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université National de Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (unpublished).

A general discussion of the economic contributions of small-scale artisanal enterprises to the national economy. Argues that artisans constitute 23% of the manufacturing production of the country. Reports that in 1965 there were an estimated 59,000 artisans, of which 12,000 were involved in basketry and other raphia-based enterprises. In the forest regions raphia, rattan, oil palms, and lianas provide the raw materials for basketry activities. Presents interesting information on the development of artisan activities at the national level. Argues that the consumption of artisan products has implicit social value. Kamara distinguishes between domestic, educational, cultural, and luxury consumption. Domestic consumption includes cooking utensils, furniture, transportation and storage equipment. Educational products include articles used in games, dances, and instruction, e.g. the talking drums used to recount ancient histories. Cultural products include objects such as those used for divination, funeral sculptures, coffins, and other objects associated with ritual ceremonies. Argues that the greatest contribution of artisans to the national economy is employment. Contains good bibliography.

180. Kamara-Ajaron, S. 1980. L’huile de palme et son utilisation au Sénégal. Notes Africaines No. 165, January.

Discusses the traditional medicinal uses of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis). Concoctions of boiled millet and oil are given to mothers at childbirth to encourage milk production. Palm oil is used to prevent blood infections at childbirth, as an antiseptic in soap; it is taken as a laxative and tonic and finally, it is used in cosmetics and skin care.

Cassia occidentalis is also examined in this article. Its leaves, when mixed with an extract of Xylopia aethiopica are used as an eye bath for treating cataracts.

181. Kamden, L. et al. 1987. Plantes médicinales de la région Moloundou et Zoetélé et leur utilisation en médecine traditionnelle. Centre d’Etudes des Plantes Médicinales, Ministry for Higher Education and Scientifique Research, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Identifies and examines 60 plant species that are used to treat common ailments. Classifies different diseases by the frequency with which they are treated using plant medicines. Plant medicines most commonly treat stomach problems, malaria, fever, bronchial ailments, and toothaches.

182. Karimu, J. 1981. Strategies for peasant farmer development: an evaluation of a rural development project in northern Sierra Leone. PhD Dissertation, University of London, Great Britain (unpublished).

The rice production scheme that this particular project introduced had an unforeseen negative impact on non-project farmers: access to raphia palm groves (located in swampy areas) became difficult (because of the parcelling out of formerly common land). Wild raphia is especially valued as house building material. It also provides food, wine, and the raw materials for artisanal activities (basketry and furniture production).

183. Karimu, J. and Richards, P. 1980. The northern area integrated agricultural development project. Consultancy Report, Ministry of Agriculture, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

This detailed analysis of agricultural systems and off-farm economic activities in the project region notes that 55% of the region’s farmers are involved in non-farm trading and craft production. Important activities include wood carving, carpentry, and palm wine tapping.

184. Kaye, V. 1987a. Le marche de l’artisanat d’art de Côte d’Ivoire. Sous Direction de la Promotion de l’Artisanat d’Art, Centre National de Promotion Touristique, Ministère du Tourisme, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (unpublished).

A general discussion of the markets of different artisan products (e.g. basketry, pottery, textile, sculpture). Addresses commercial operation but not domestic artisan production. Notes that there are three principal markets for most artisan products: the household (e.g. kitchen utensils, ceremonial cloths), hotels, and the external market (export and tourists). Presents estimates on the volume of artisan trade in Côte d’Ivoire: estimates that there are 2,400 wood sculptors whose gross production is FCFA 518,400,000 annually. Estimates that there are 1,000 basketry workers whose production is valued at FCFA 144,000 million annually.

185. Kaye, V. 1987b. Etude sur les potentialités de l’artisanat d’art en Côte d’Ivoire: plan triennal de développement de l’artisanat d’art, 1988-1991. Sous Direction de l’Artisanat d’Art, Direction de la Promotion de l’Artisanat d’Art, Ministère du Tourisme, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

This in-depth study of artisan production and markets distinguishes between artistic artisanry (production of art objects), domestic artisanry (traditional production to meet immediate domestic needs), and utilitarian artisanry (commercialised production of utilitarian products such as furniture). It provides statistical estimates on the number of artisans (102,270), distinguishing between those for whom it is their principal occupation, those involved occasionally (seasonally), and those involved very occasionally (at least once a month). The statistics also differentiate between rural and urban-based workers. For example, estimates that there are 1,500 people whose main occupation is working cane, 3,000 who are involved occasionally, and 62,000 very occasionally. The majority of cane workers live in the rural areas. The cane enterprises produce an estimated FCFA 766 million annually.

Presents similar statistics for wood sculptors, ivory sculptors, potters, cloth dyers and printers, cloth weavers, metal workers, and leather workers. Estimates total artisan production to be FCFA 11,785 million. Examines the market for artisan products, noting that 90% of the people surveyed in the urban areas had purchased artisan products. Adds that 64% of artisans’ clientele are rural people. Cane products are generally sold directly on order (60% of sales). Notes both that cane work and basketry is a vital enterprise link to agriculture (e.g. for the production of transport and storage equipment, and crop dryers) and that most rural workers in this enterprise produce for their own needs as well as those of fellow villagers. Discusses the recent changes in artisan production and markets and assesses the potential for development of the artisan industry for the tourist trade.

186. Kengne, F. 1987. Les marches du sud Cameroun leur rôle dans l’organisation commerciale régionale: étude géographique. Thesis, Doctorat de Lettre de l’Etat, Université de Bordeaux III, France (unpublished).

This extensive study of more than 1500 markets in southern Cameroon includes an analysis of the types of markets, types of products sold, the structure of different product markets (e.g. the presence or absence of middle women locally known as “bayam sellams”), and the physical market organisation. It includes information on the marketing of palm wine, and notes that palm wine is sold in more than half the markets studied. It describes some of the forest and farm tree products marketed including nuts, fruit, leaves (both for consumption and as packaging material), termites, bushmeat, and medicinal products. And it notes that there are certain areas of markets which specialise in fuelwood and charcoal. Material for house construction is also often marketed including: poles, lianas, raphia leaves and spines, as well as raffia roofing material. These products are generally seen in markets catering to urban consumers.

187. Kerharo, J. 1970. Pharmacognosie du Rauwolfia vomitoria grand médicament africain. Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et Botanique Appliquée 17(10):353-367.

Rauwolfia is a medicine common to many West African medical treatments. It is valued for its purgative quality and is used in many fetish treatments. This article describes its chemical composition and pharmaceutical uses.

188. Kerharo, J. and Adam, J. 1974. La pharmacopée Sénégalaise traditionnelle. Plantes médicinales et toxiques. Vigot Frères, Paris, France.

This book provides a general overview of different traditional medical practices in Senegal. It integrates information about the traditional use of more than 550 plant species with data on their chemical and therapeutic effectiveness. For each species it provides detailed information on the botany, habitat, uses (and methods used), chemical composition and pharmaceutical properties. It describes treatments that are used by healers to treat ten common diseases (e.g. bilharzia, snake and anti-venom, yellow fever, malaria, intestinal disorders, pulmonary problems, rheumatism, syphilis, leprosy and mental disorders). The publication includes an extensive bibliography.

189. Kio, P.R.O. 1987. Problems of raw materials in pharmaceutical production in Nigeria. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

The pharmaceutical industry is largely dependent on inputs from imports (80%). This paper evaluates the potential profit that could be derived through export of Nigerian local plant resources. There are many different species of plants that could be developed as substitutes, additives (e.g. manioc), flavourings and sweeteners (e.g. Thaumatococcus daniellii), suspending agents (e.g. gum of Zanthoxylum sp.), or essential oils (e.g. Ocimum gratissimum). This article discusses the potential for development drugs that use some species that are commonly used in traditional medical treatments (eg. Azadirachta indica, Enantia chlorantha, Rauwolfia sp. Alstonia boonei).

190. Koagne, H. 1986. La dynamique des plantes et dérivés alimentaires dans la Chefferie Bafoussam. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Département of Géographie, University of Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

This detailed study compares the historic and current use of wild and cultivated food plants in the western region of Cameroon. It includes nutritional and medical information and the results of a food consumption survey. The food consumption survey includes information on forest and farm tree food preparation and consumption. It analyses the frequency with which these different foods are eaten.

The piece also discusses the marketing and economic returns of several forest and farm tree products including raphia palm wine, the fruit of Pachylobus edulis, Dacryodes edulis, Canarium schweinfurthii and palm oil. In some cases Pachylobus edulis fruit provide an important source of income. The author compares the revenue earned from different crops in four case study households. The highest income is earned in a household which sells raphia palm wine. Provides data on the consumption of raphia palm wine, noting that while it is no longer consumed daily, it is still used at all ritual and cultural ceremonies.

Gathered edible plants are less important in the diet today than they were in the past, however a few species are still consumed in about 80% of the meals (e.g. Vernonia amygdalina, Pteridium aquilinum, and Triumfetta rhomboidea). Palm oil is used almost daily. The “fruit of Pachylobus edulis is also common and is often used in sauces to accompany the main meals. Generally each household has five or six Pachylobus edulis trees.

Fruit is generally not considered “food”, it is eaten at any time of the day, especially by children, but there are many tree fruits which are sought after. The fruit of Cola acuminata are consumed daily and most households have at least one or two trees. The piece also includes data on nutrition composition of wild and domesticated indigenous food species.

The piece notes that the natural vegetation of the region has all but disappeared, except in sacred groves. It discusses the frequency with which certain forest foods are still served at some ceremonies (e.g. weddings, funerals, initiations and births). Prominent among these ceremonially important plant foods are raphia palm wine, and sauces made with Vernonia amygdalina, Pachylobus edulis and Triumfetta rhomboidea.

The raphia palm is the most “all-purpose” tree: it provides fruits that are eaten raw or cooked; leaves that are used for making fish nets and ropes, petioles and spines that are used in house construction. The wood is used for household furniture, musical instruments, and for the walls of houses. Its leaf spines are used in most basketry, for making harvest baskets and crop dryers.

191. Korang, T. 1986. Impact of forest management on the rural population: a case study of the Subri Project. Thesis, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

This study examines the impact of forest conversion (plantations for pulp and fuel) on local people. Korang assesses the impact in terms of the costs and benefits of the project as viewed by residents of the region. The creation of employment and improved road maintenance were the two most important positive changes, while the majority of local people felt that in the future the project was likely to cause a depletion of non-timber forest products, a shortage of wood products, food and accommodation.

Ten tree products are discussed in the article but the loss of bushmeat, canes, and chewing stick materials are deemed most important. These products, especially cane and chewing sticks were especially valued by local people because of their commercial value. Many households supplemented their incomes by gathering these products and selling them to wholesale traders.

192. Laburthe-Tolra, P. 1981. Les seigneurs de la foret: essai sur le passe historique, l’organisation sociale et les normes ethniques des anciens Betis du Caméroun. La Sorbonne, Paris, France.

This paper examines the changes in living, cultural and agricultural practices of the Beti in southern Cameroon. Men traditionally did all the wood work (carving and carpentry) and have responsibility for all tree clearing and planting activities. Hunting, which was the man’s domain, has become much less common as all the big game has disappeared, while fishing is still normally undertaken by women who used traps or poisons. These poisons can be derived from Tetrapleura tetraptera, Pachyelasma tessmannii and Tephrosia toxica.

The diet is less diverse, includes far less animal protein, and manioc and macabo have become more common staple replacing the more nutritious yarns. Formerly women built yam storage houses, but this is no longer done as food supplies are now less stable. Insects are however still very popular. Prior to “modern” education children ate throughout the day, and initiation ceremonies provided periods of great food consumption. The article discusses some of these traditional religious ceremonies and protected tree species. For example, the large red barked tree Distemonanthus benthamianus plays a central role in many Beti rituals.Itli never burned or felled and its bark is carried as a talisman.

The paper also describes former house construction methods: houses were made of poles (usually Coula edulis as its wood is termite resistant), bark walls (generally the smoked bark of Triplochiton scleroxylon and Enantia chlorantha) and raphia palm thatch rooves. The creosote from cooking fires fixed the roof leaves so that they were watertight. The houses were appreciated because they could be moved, the bark walls lasted many years.

193. Lacrouts, M. and Tyc, J. 1961. Les ressources animales de la République de la Côte d’Ivoire. Ministère d’Agriculture, Côte d’Ivoire.

Though the data from this study are old, they do illustrate the central importance bushmeat had in the recent past. This report estimates that people consume 9.7 kg of wild meat (from gathering and hunting) a year; this quantity is more than all domestic meats, chicken and milk combined; it is equivalent to the amount of fish consumed annually. A specific study in Bongouanou found that people consumed greater quantities of bushmeat in their field camps (87 g/day/person of a total 97 g of meat consumed) than in the villages (32 g/person/day of a total 66 g of meat consumed daily). The study found that gathered or hunted meat was eaten daily in most households. In one region alone an estimated 2,000 tonnes of snails were eaten annually. There was a great deal bushmeat trade between the forest and savanna regions. But the report indicates that the supply of bushmeat is declining. As hunting is now illegal in Côte d’Ivoire, it is difficult to find current estimates on bushmeat consumption.

194. Leleup, N. and Daems, B. 1969. Les chenilles alimentaires du Kwango: causes de leurs rarification et mesure préconisées pour y remédier (Centre Afrique). Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et Botaniques Appliquées 16(I):1-22.

Although this study is not from the West African area, it serves as an example of the potential (and actual) importance of “small” bushmeat - the caterpillar. The article describes the ecology, distribution, use and seasonality of different species. It reveals that caterpillars are one of the main sources of protein and income to local communities. They are an excellent protein source (70% when dried). From 1954 to 1958, in Kwanga district, the trade of 925 tonnes of dried caterpillars was recorded. The authors estimate that a minimal 300 tonnes are traded yearly in the region. Thirty species are consumed.

195. Levingston, R. and Zamora, R. 1983. Medicine trees of the tropics. Unasylva 35(149):7-11.

For the majority of people in the rural tropics, the 200,000 to 700,000 plant species with medicinal value provide the primary source of treatment. In this article, medicinally valuable plants are described according to their function: abortificant, anti-helmintic, emetic, cardiotonic, etc. The species that are native to the humid tropics that are discussed in this piece include the kamala tree (Mallotus philippensis) common in Asian rain forests; Myroxylon balsamum from South America, Rauwolfia sp. common in Africa and Asia. In arid regions, Jatropha curcas has many medicinal uses as do many Acacia sp., A. nilotica (syn. A. arabica). The article successfully integrates ecological and medicinal information. However, it provides only a few examples and thus gives no indication of the extent to which these plants are used, nor an indication of the efficiency of their cures.

196. Longhurst, R. 1985. Cropping systems and household food security: evidence from three West African countries. Food and Nutrition 11(2):10-16.

Using case studies from Sierra Leone, Gambia and Nigeria this article describes the seasonal variations in food supply in different farming systems. Longhurst examines different factors including the differences in women’s role, the effects of climate, disease, income, and work loads. In Sierra Leone, palm oil provides a significant portion of the overall energy intake (14%). In Nigeria, fermented Parkia sp. is a common food.

197. Lootvoet, B. 1984. Artisanat et commerce autour d’un complexe industriel: données économiques sur Agboville et Dimbokro, République de Côte d’Ivoire. Document de Travail, Centre ORSTOM, Petit-Bassam, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

This survey of small-scale enterprises and commercial activities in Agboville and Dimbokro, Côte d’Ivoire provides detailed information on production (food processing, soap production, cloth and leather working, rattan and wood-working, metal and jewelry work) and commercial activities (including food and specialised goods sold in and out of central market areas). It explores the economic returns of these varied activities. And it notes that there are large economic differences between different woodworkers. The paper looks at the number of people that are involved in wood and rattan production activities, the number of retail traders of fruit, condiments, smoked fish, and snails, as well as the number of traders of charcoal, wood and basketry products. Most charcoal and wood is sold outside of market areas. Of these trading activities, the greatest number of people are involved in the sale of condiments, smoked fish, fuelwood and charcoal. In the production sector, the greatest number of people are involved in woodworking (cabinet-making).

198. MacFoy, C. 1983. Medicinal plant survey of Sierra Leone. Department of Botany, University of Sierra Leone, Fourah Bay College, Freetown College, Sierra Leone.

Describes over 100 species used in traditional medical treatments. Each entry includes botanical and ecological descriptions as well as a listing of the species’ local uses.

199. MacFoy, C. 1986. Medical ethnobotany of Gloucester village. Sierra Leone. University of Sierra Leone, Africana Research Bulletin (14-(1 & 2)).

This study, which is based on interviews with villagers, herbalists, and traditional healers discusses, in a general way, the continued use of traditional medicine. The study describes 70 plant species collected for treatment against snake bites, jaundice, scabies, malaria, measles, headaches, impotence, hypertension, diabetes, toothaches, earaches, dysentery, asthma, yellow fever, boils, hernias, worms, coughs, rheumatism, and diarrhea. Many herbalists are finding it more and more difficult to find their medicines. They are being forced to travel longer distances. The traditions surrounding plant medicine collection are all discussed (e.g. season of collection, time of day, location, plants found). The article also includes listings of some species that are valued for their magical properties (e.g. protection against witches). Many of the listed treatments involve combinations of several different species. For example, a decoction of the leaves of Morinda morindoides, M. geminata, Ocimum gratissimum, Citrus aurantifolia and Pachylobus edulis are boiled and taken in tea against malaria.

200. MacFoy, C. and Cline, E. 1986. Some medicinal plants used against bacterial infections of man in Gloucester village (Sierra Leone). Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Sierra Leone Vol. 1.

A village level study on the uses of plants in treating bacterial infections. Twenty five species are identified as being commonly used to treat cholera, dental infections, dysentery, leprosy, measles, sores, tetanus, tuberculosis, and veneral diseases. Information on the methods of use is also included. The authors note that plant medicines are the most commonly used treatments despite village proximity to “modern” facilities. The majority of the people prefer herbal medicine because it is familiar (traditional and past experience) and because of the escalating cost of antibiotics in pharmacies and markets.

201. MacFoy, C. and Sama, A. 1983. Medicinal plants in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 8:215-223.

This article describes 59 plant species used in traditional treatments. It notes that some species are cultivated, but the majority are collected from the wild. The practices associated with plant medicine collection (e.g. restrictions on the time at which specific plants can be collected) are reviewed. MacFoy and Sama observe that most villagers turn to traditional plant medicines first. Interesting, detailed information on the values of these medicinal plants is provided. The authors note that some species are common food plants.

202. Macleod, H. 1987. Conservation of Oku mountain forest, Cameroon. Study report No. 15, Oku Project, International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), Cambridge, Great Britain (unpublished).

This report is a background study of the Oku mountain forest area and its resident population. It includes a description of the peoples’ agricultural practices, other economic activities, and their use of surrounding forest resources. The paper asserts that 35% of the area’s villagers supplement their income with non-farm activities such as honey production, woodworking, basket weaving, and medicinal bark collection. For some families, these “other” activities represent their sole source of income. Because the region is a centre for Prunus africanum (syn. Pygaeum africanum), whose bark is used for treatments of prostate glands, the bark extraction industry provides an important source of off-farm income for local residents. Over 4,000 tonnes of bark are extracted annually by one pharmaceutical company alone.

The report describes the activities and gives production figures for a local honey cooperative. It outlines local wood-carving and weaving activities and includes information on the types of forest species that are exploited. Traditional products include carved stools, drums, masks, bowls, palm oil containers, carved portals, and decorative pillars. Wood carving is traditionally a male activity, while women dominate basket weaving enterprises.

The region is also renowned as a centre of traditional healing. People travel to the region from over 400 kilometres away for medical treatments. Macleod notes some of the medicinal plants that are found in this forest region.

203. Madon, G. and Matly, M. 1987. Sénégal: énergie domestique. Eléments de stratégie: Tome I Rapport. Prepared for the Département des Eaux et Forets, Dakar, Senegal.

Discusses domestic consumption of charcoal and fuelwood. Notes that charcoal is the preferred fuel in Dakar and other urban centres. Provides information on the market prices for fuelwood and charcoal. Also discusses revenues earned by charcoal makers and traders.

204. Madouga, M. and Ebale, M. 1988. Personal Communication. Officers in the Département de l’Habitat et Urbanisation, Yaoundé, Cameroon (January).

Madouga and Ebale discussed traditional housing: building techniques, the types and quantities of materials that are used. Poto-poto (mud and wattle houses) can last for as long as 50 years, and on average take 2 months to build. The forest species used for poles vary from region to region. Termite-resistant species are in especially high demand and can fetch high prices in urban and peri-urban markets. A one-room house might require approximately 350 poles and 1,000 cross-slats.

205. Mallart Guimera, L. 1969. L’arbre oven. In Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.) 1969. Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes africains. Société d’Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologique de France (SELAF), Paris, France, 16:59-69.

An ethnographic study of the symbolic importance of the “oven” tree (Copaifera religiosa) for the Evuzok people in southern Cameroon. The study draws on oral histories and stories as well as information from traditional healers. Natural vegetation plays a significant symbolic role in the lives of the Evuzok, featuring in their rites, magic and healing practices. The oven tree is the’ most important. It is considered the most powerful: the chief of all trees, controlling fecundity, wealth, power and fame. It is also a “sorcerer tree”, its power is not always munificent. Thus, the tree is an ambiguous symbol of both good and evil. It is both revered and feared. The tree’s bark is used in many traditional medical treatments, particularity for illnesses “caused” by sorcery such as venereal diseases and sterility.

206. Mankoto ma Mbaelele, M., Dudu, A. and Colyn, M. 1987. Data on small and medium scale game utilization in the rain forest of Zaire. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 6-13 October. Sponsored by FAO and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, pp. 109-141.

This paper examines the mammal species that are marketed in Kisangani and those that are hunted and consumed in northern Zaire. The main village products sold for the Kisangani market are game meat, fuelwood and agricultural food crops. Game meat is sold either fresh or dried (there are differences between different game species). The most commonly consumed game species in the rural areas differ from those consumed in urban Kisangani. Hunting is seasonal, it is at its peak in July and August (the slack period for agriculture) and at its lowest level during the planting season. Some species are sought in particular seasons (e.g. bats, molluscs, caterpillars). Fish and bushmeat comprise an estimated 95% of the meat that is consumed by both rural and urban dwellers. Bushmeat is generally cheaper than domestic meat and can be purchased in smaller portions, suiting the needs of the urban poor.

207. Martin, G.H. 1978. Bushmeat: a neglected national resource. Paper presented at a seminar of the Centre for Social, Cultural and Environmental Studies, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria (unpublished).

Presents a general view of the bushmeat market in southern Nigeria, estimating market size and the quantities and monetary value of bushmeat sales. The paper discusses the results of a market and roadside survey conducted by students at the University of Benin, Department of Biology. Grasscutter and small antelopes (mostly duikers) were the most commonly sold species. Monkeys, porcupine and giant rat were also common. The average price of bushmeat per kg. was 4.50 naira compared with 1.75/kg for beef, and 2.00/kg for goat. Ninety-two percent of those surveyed (5,000 people) eat bushmeat; 53% of those living in rural areas consumed it regularly (more than once a month), in urban areas 40% were regular consumers. Sixty-two percent (in both rural and urban areas) stated that bushmeat availability limited their consumption. Bushmeat was purchased regularly by both rural and urban consumers. The study estimates that the annual value of the bushmeat market is 3,600 million naira.

208. Martin, G.H. 1983. Bushmeat in Nigeria as a natural resource with environmental implications. Environmental Conservation 10(2):125-132.

This article reports the results of a recent bushmeat consumption study from southern Nigeria. It includes a roadside survey (of bushmeat sales), a market survey of meat prices, and the results of 5,000 interviews designed to examine peoples’ consumption and appreciation of bushmeat. The most common species sold at roadsides were duikers (Cephalophus sp.), grasscutters (Thryonomys sp.), and porcupines (Atherurus africanus). Bushmeat commanded high prices in the market (equivalent to that of imported beef). Ninety-five percent of those surveyed ate bushmeat. It was eaten more frequently by those living in rural areas. The percentage of regular bushmeat consumers ranged from 46-62% of total meat consumption in all income groups, however, those people in the higher income groups spent more on bushmeat than those with smaller incomes. This suggests that poorer people purchased smaller quantities of bushmeat, but with similar frequency to those with higher incomes. Grasscutter was the species eaten most regularly, followed by duikers. Presents estimates of the national value of bushmeat trade; figures range from 150,000,000 naira to 3,600 million naira. Proposes that the potential for domestication and game-cropping be explored.

209. Martin, G.H. 1985. Carcass composition and palatability of some wild animals commonly used as food in West Africa. World Animal Review 53:40-45.

This article discusses the meat quality, carcass weight and prices of the most commonly marketed bushmeat species in Bendel, Nigeria. The most commonly sold animals (mostly roadside) are duiker (Cephalophus maxwelli), cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus), porcupine (Atherurus africanus), and the giant snail (Archachatina marginata). Animals are sold fresh the day of killing; if they are not sold, they are smoked for future sale. Cane rat is the most important bushmeat species; it is consumed in the greatest quantities and is preferred. Snails, cane rat and porcupine fetch the highest prices per kilo. The prices for cane rat have increased faster than those for other bushmeats. In Ghana and Nigeria bushmeat prices are higher than local domestic meat prices.

210. Mba, 1983. Meat production in Nigeria: prospects and problems. In Akinyele, L. and Atinmo T. (eds.). Nutrition and food policy in Nigeria. National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (INPSS), Ibadan, Nigeria.

This study indicates that there is an ever-increasing demand for bushmeat (a 94% increase in 1980 compared with 1975). The supply of bushmeat is, however declining.

211. Mbi, C.N. 1985. The sterols and oils of the bark and seed of a medicinal plant in Cameroon. Revue Sciences et Techniques (Série Science de la Santé). Yaoundé, Cameroon. Tome 11(1-2):93-99.

This article reports the results of pharmacological research on the stem bark of Bacholzia sp.. The powdered bark of Bacholzia is traditionally used for decongestion of sinuses, headaches, and eye problems. It is also used in treating chest pains, kidney disease, and smallpox. The study finds that it contained the sterols galcosinolates and proanthyocyanide which help explain its effectiveness.

212. Mbi, C.N. and Njikam, A.P. 1986. The use of Cameroon’s forests as medicinal plant reserves. Earth Life News 5:14-19.

In this article, some common medicinal plant species that are found in the forest zone are discussed. The importance of preserving forest areas as reserves for genetic material for future medicines is emphasised. The article explains the chemical basis for the use of some medicinal plants (e.g. tannin of Pterocarpus sp. is a glycoside which is not readily absorbed into the system and thus is of great value in treating diarrhea and dysentery). It also outlines the properties of gums, fixed oils, toxalbumins (e.g. latex of Caricar sp.), glycosides, alkaloids, essential oils, resins, and other properties. Finally, the piece reviews some of the botanical and pharmacological research that has been conducted on commonly used plant species at the Centre for Medicinal Plant Research (MESRES) In Yaoundé.

213. Mbila, M. et al. 1984. Etude de la germination de la croissance et de l’absorption d’eau chez Cassia alata. Revue Sciences et Techniques (Série Science de la Santé) Yaoundé, Cameroun. Tome I(3-4):69-77.

This article describes the traditional medicinal uses of Cassia alata. In Senegal, a skin lotion is made from the leaves, flowers, and bark. Throughout West Africa, the leaves are used both as a purgative and to treat abcesses. Infusions of the leaves are used in treating jaundice; they are also commonly used to treat skin problems.

214. Mensah, A. 1982. Traditional food packaging: a survey of materials, methods and cultural practices. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Logon (unpublished).

This is an interesting study of the materials that are used for food packaging. Many traditional foods (e.g. kenkey and dokon) are cooked and stored in the large leaves of Marantochloa cuspidata, M. purpurea, Megaphrynium macrostachyum, Sterculia tragacantha, Baphia nitida and plantain. These leaves are usually either gathered from forest areas or purchased and they are often smoke dried and saved for later use. They are especially valued for the flavour they give to the wrapped food, their preserving qualities, or their ability to withstand boiling. The shelf life of wrapped products varies from a couple of days to a week depending on the leaves that are used. Many traditional foods are wrapped in specific leaves. For example, kenkey is wrapped in the leaves of Sterculia sp., while agidi (corn dumplings) are wrapped in Marantochloa sp. leaves, or when it is unavailable in the leaves of Megaphrynium sp.

215. Michotte, J. 1969. Groupe de production et niveau de revenu dans la zone dense a l’ouest de Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire. ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaine Vol. 2(2). Centre Petit-Bassam, Côte d’Ivoire.

This study examines the relationship between the income farmers earn producing coffee and the income they earn from gathering forest products. The article indicates that the most common forest products farmers sell are oil palm products and fruits. The study concludes that farmers with greater coffee production and more disposable income earn more cash income from other gathering activities.

216. Ministère de la Santé Publique (Senegal). 1984. Enquête alimentaire nutritionnelle dans le Département de Bignona, Région de Casamance. Division de l’alimentation et de la nutrition appliquée, Dakar, Senegal.

This report discusses food resources and nutritional situation in this forest region of Casamance. It compares the frequency with which people exploit fish, wild animal, and wild fruit resources. In one village 20% of the population hunts, in another area, more dependent on fishing, only 8% of the population hunts. Fruit production (and collection) varies greatly from area to area (e.g. in Djiamande, 15% of the villagers are involved in this activity, compared with 77% of those from Karongue). Palm oil, leaves, fish, and ground nuts are the main complementary foods of the region. Provides information on food taboos.

217. Ministère des Affaires Sociales (Côte d’Ivoire). 1986. Femmes et environnement: des foyers améliorées pour l’économies de bois de feu en Côte d’Ivoire. Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

An interesting study of the fuelwood situation in Côte d’Ivoire. Compares the costs of using fuelwood, charcoal and gas in different settings. The study estimates that households spend between 8 and 17% of their annual income on fuel. Charcoal is now the preferred fuel in Abidjan because it can be purchased in small quantities, is smokeless, produces a good heat, and may be cheaper. Its popularity is spreading into the rural regions.

Notes that fuelwood is an important item of social exchange in rural areas. Its marketing is dominated by women when on a small scale, as the fuelwood trade expands men become increasingly involved (because of the time they can afford to spend on these activities and their access to transportation). The same is true for charcoal production. Small scale charcoal production provides an important source of income for young women. Discusses the dependence of many processing and other small scale enterprises on fuelwood and charcoal. Notes that these are primarily women’s activities, and it is these women who bear the brunt of increasing fuel costs. Links the fuelwood situation to cooking practices and food consumption. Women perceive that the fuelwood situation is getting worse and that there has been a general degradation of the rural environment caused by increasing population pressure, changes in agricultural practices, and increasing pressure from cattle grazing.

Discusses the traditions which protect specific trees (because they are valued sources of food, medicine, wood for religious articles, or house spirits), or areas (e.g. sacred groves).

218. Ministère des Eaux et Forets, Côte d’Ivoire. 1987. Note d’intention: les projets de gestion de la faune en République de Côte d’Ivoire. Paper presented at the International Symposium and Conference: Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 6-13 October. Sponsored by FAD and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, pp. 466-471.

Reviews the role of wildlife in the national economy, assesses the subsistence and tourist/trophy values. Estimates the value of bushmeat consumption to be 50 billion francs a year (a conservative estimate based on an estimate of 5 kg/year/capita consumption). Reports on one recent study which finds that in rural areas average bushmeat consumption is 11.3 kg/year/capita, and 4.3 kg/year/capita among urban consumers. Production of bushmeat is still greater than total domestic meat production. These figures are particularly interesting as hunting is illegal in Côte d’Ivoire.

219. Ministère du Plan (Côte d’Ivoire). 1967. Région du sud-est: étude socio-économique. Les comptes économiques de 1967. Société d’études pour le développement économique et social, Paris, France (February).

An analysis of socioeconomic data on agricultural and small and large scale industries. Includes information on the costs and revenues of various small scale enterprises. Includes detailed statistics on the value (in FCFA) of marketed and home produced fresh and smoked bushmeat, snails, medicinal plants, palm wine, palm oil, and palm alcohol. Although these statistics can only be taken as crude indicators, they are interesting because more recent consumption estimates are not available as hunting is now officially illegal throughout the country.

Estimates the total value of bushmeat in the rural region of the south east at 630.4 million FCFA; the value of smoked game meat is estimated to be 385.2 million, while the value of fresh bushmeat is estimated to be 172 million FCFA. The consumption of small game far exceeds that of large game. Snails are also of considerable value: 73.1 million FCFA. The statistics indicate that the major portion of bushmeat is produced for home consumption rather than for the market.

Describes the methods of production (e.g. chairs, tables, beds) for several wood products. Also discusses the value added in these enterprises. Reports fuelwood consumption of various small scale enterprises. For example, notes that over the region fuelwood costs represent 4% of overall receipts (or approximately 6% of their costs) for small scale enterprises.

220. Moby-Etia, P. 1982. Les pays Bas-Mungo Bas-Wouri (Cameroon). Etude géographique de la vie rurale et des relations avec les Douala (Cameroon). Thesis 3rd Cycle, Université de Paris I, Paris, France (unpublished).

A thorough village level study comparing local uses of forest resources and regional timber company exploitation (as the area is close to Douala port, most of the good timber areas are heavily exploited). The local people exploit the secondary forest, especially for oil palms, Irvingia gabonensis and other food trees. The plateau forests are valued by residents for timber (for artisanal activities) and medicine resources. The mangrove forests are valued for the fuelwood used in fish smoking and the timber used in house construction. Because timber extractors generate no local benefits they put added pressure on the remaining resources.

Analyses the economics of palm wine (and alcohol) production and marketing. Estimates that wine production provides a living for more than 20,000 people in the region. More than three quarters of the men in the villages produce palm wine, especially in the dry season (an average collector taps 8-10,000 litres a season). More than 6000 tonnes of palm wine enter commerce from this region. Small producers average about 20-35,000 FCFA a month from this production (larger producers can realize a profit of more than 50,000 FCFA a month). Examines the trade of palm wine (quantitatively) with Douala (only includes what enters Douala by road but substantial quantities are brought by boat and over land). The oil presses used for oil processing (another important enterprise in the region) are made from the wood of Pterocarpus soyauxii. Notes that this species is now difficult to find as it has been heavily exploited by industrial forest enterprises.

Finally, includes a discussion of the resources employed to make equipment used in other sectors such as fishing. Canoes are important assets in the region both for fishing and transportation. Pterocarpus soyauxii is the most sought after species by the local canoe builders. There are both “light wood” (from swampy areas) and “heavy wood” (from dryer areas) varieties which are used for different sized crafts. Canoe paddles are made from Staudtia gabonensis.

221. Hope Simo, J. 1984. Ambivalence and development: the role of women in cash-earning activities in the Ndop plains (Cameroon). Thèse de Maîtrise, Yaoundé, Cameroun (unpublished).

A sociological study of women’s processing and marketing enterprises in the Ndop region of Cameroon. Fish smoking is one of the most common activities available to women. These women purchase fresh fish and sell the processed product for 2-3 times the purchase price. Fuelwood supply for smoking often limits the extent of these operations.

222. Moris, J.R. 1985. Indigenous versus introduced solutions to food stress. Paper presented at the workshop on seasonal ‘causes of household food insecurity: policy, implementation and research needs. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA.

An analysis of the ways people cope with seasonal and emergency food supply problems. Case material is drawn from several African countries. One section is devoted to seasonal and emergency food gathering (including hunting) strategies. Moris develops the notion of introduced and institutional seasonalities: school fees, for example must be paid on an administrative calendar which does not necessarily correspond to crop production cycles. The crop payments may not coincide with periods of cash needs - thus institutionally induced hardships may ensue.

223. Moss, R. and Morgan, W. 1981. Fuelwood and rural energy production and supply in the humid tropics. UN University, Tycooly International Publishing Ltd., Dublin, Ireland.

A general discussion of the use, production, and supply of fuelwood in regions of the humid tropics. Presents considerable data from on-going fuelwood studies in southern Nigeria. Discusses fuelwood production for both market sale and home consumption.

224. Motte, E. 1982. Les plantes chez les pygmées Aka et les Monzombo de Lobaye (Centre Afrique): étude éthnobotanique comparative chez les chasseurs-cuielleurs et les pêcheurs-cultivateurs dans un même milieu végétal. Société d’Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France (SELAF), Paris, France.

This extensive anthropological and ethnobotanical study compares the use of forest resources by hunter gatherer pygmies and agricultural fishing people. It includes information on gathered and cultivated plants and their uses, hunting and fishing equipment and practices (e.g. species used for trap construction, canoe building and fish poisons), cooking, cooking utensils, house and furniture construction materials, and equipment used in transport and storage. The piece also describes the raw materials used for making musical instruments and traditional medicines while also illustrating the role forest resources play in myths, stories, and magical rituals. Includes a great deal of information and an excellent bibliography.

225. Ndon, B.A. and Essien. 1987. The establishment of local browse species in comparison with Leucaena sp. and Gliricidia sp. In Reynolds, L. and Atta-Krah, A.N. 1987. Browse and small ruminant production in southeastern Nigeria. Proceedings of a symposium. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This study examines the productivity of local browse species and exotics. These exotic species do not perform well on acid soils (common in Cross river state). The study finds that Alchornea cordifolia and Harungana madagascariensis each produced more biomass than Gliricidia sp.. The most commonly used browse species are identified.

226. Nerquaye-Tetteh, G.A. 1982. Assessment of women’s participation in activities related to small-scaled fisheries. Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Accra, Ghana.

This paper describes the different methods used for fish smoking, including the fuelwood species required. The preferred species are: Terminalia ivorensis, Nesogordonia papaverifera, Baphia nitida, Azadirachta indica, Combretum sp., and Ricinodendron macrocarpum; they burn slowly and produce the desired smoker heat, and taste. Some women purchase fuelwood. The study finds that fish smoking is the main source of income for women, often the primary source for the household as a whole. The piece describes the types of wood used to build smoking ovens; the desired species are difficult to find, and inferior wood is now being used.

227. Niangoran-Bouah, G. 1983. Le silence dans les traditions de culture Africaine. Revue Ivoirienne d’Anthropologie et de Sociologie No. 3:6-11.

An anthropological essay on traditional initiation ceremonies and their role in West African culture. Sacred forest groves provide the location for initiation rites and other culturally defining activities. During these ceremonies, young people learn about their cultural heritage: the history and laws of their particular society. These groves provide the symbolic link to ancestors and myths of particular culture.

228. Nicol, B.M. 1972. Food from forests. Report on FAO Conference on the Establishment of Cooperative Agricultural Research Project between countries with similar ecological conditions in Africa, Document 16, Rome, Italy.

Includes information on the consumption of palm products. Estimates that they provide approximately one third of the energy in the diet of people in the humid tropics. In addition, palm oil (from processed fruit of Elaeis guineensis) provides an essential source of vitamin A. Nicol adds that Irvingia gabonensis seeds are an important source of protein.

229. Nihan, G., Demol, E. and Abodotabi, A. 1982. Le secteur non-structure “moderne” de Yaoundé (Cameroon). ILO, Genève, Switzerland.

This detailed study of the “informal” sector in Yaoundé examines the activities and importance of small scale production and service enterprises, including woodworking enterprises. The study estimates that in manufacturing, the informal sector employs as many, if not more people than large scale industry in manufacturing. A large fraction (49%) of the labour force work as apprentices. Provides detailed estimates of the revenues that are earned, the raw materials that are used, the value-added, and the investment capacities.

It is estimated that small scale woodworking industries earn an estimated gross income of FCFA 1.6 billion and use an estimated FCFA 0.9 billion worth of raw material (wood). An estimated 1,500 people are involved in small woodworking enterprises in Yaoundé. More than 50% of these people originate from the rural areas (the majority coming from Bamilike).

230. Njoku, K.U. 1983. Economic assessment of indigenous food producing forest tree species in Imo state, Nigeria. MSc Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

A thorough examination of the role and importance of forest food products in Imo State households. Examines the density of forest food trees on farms and notes that their density is much lower in natural forest areas. Presents information from a market study which compares the prices and availabilities of marketed forest foods. In general, wild fruits and vegetables sell for comparable or greater prices than cultivated varieties. For example, Gnetum sp. leaves sell for 1.60 naira/500 g while cultivated Amaranthus sp. sells for 0.50 naira/500 g; Dennettia tripetala fruit sell for 1.80 naira/500 g while papaya sells for 0.40 naira/500 g. Vegetables are available daily in markets, especially in the dry season, when cultivated varieties are not available. Seeds are more seasonal than fresh fruits which are available in most periods. Describes 12 vegetable tree species.

Also includes descriptive information of the ways forest foods are consumed (e.g. Dennettia tripetala fruit are consumed fresh with cola nuts to add a peppery taste) and the myriad of “other” uses for these locally valued species. For example, the leaves of Dacryodes edulis are used in marriage ceremonies to signify acceptance of a suitor. The paper also describes common dishes that are based on wild forest products (e.g. soups, salads and vegetable sauces for yams) and how they are processed.

231. Njomgang, C. 1987. Evaluation des énérgies traditionnelles au Cameroun, Institut de Sciences Humaines, Centre de Recherches Economiques et Démographiques, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

This review of fuelwood studies conducted in Cameroon estimates that fuelwood consumption is the equivalent of 1.6-1.7 steres per person per year (1.6 kg/day). It notes that 60% of the households in Yaoundé use fuelwood and charcoal for cooking. In rural areas, fuelwood is the main source of cooking fuel.

232. Nkodo. 1988. Personal Communication. Doctor working for Save the Children (an international NGO) in Yaoundé, Cameroon (January).

Discussed both the extent to which traditional medicines are still used and current Cameroonian initiatives to build on traditional healing practices. Also discussed possible ways of incorporating health issues into community forestry activities (e.g. species bearing fruit with high vitamin contents for introduction in southern regions).

233. Nkongmeneck, B. 1985. Le genre cola au Cameroun. Revues Sciences et Techniques, Série de la Science Agronomique 1(3):57-70, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

A study of the cola genus in Cameroon, this article describes 40 species, including their regional distribution and traditional pharmacological uses. Three species. Cola acuminata, Cola anomala, and Cola pachycarpa are the most commonly used. Cola acuminata is used by the Beti to treat coughs, colds, and catarrhs. It is also used for treatment of herpes, colic and eye problems. Cola anomala is used for treating sprains. The bark of Cola pachycarpa is used for treating dysentery, stomachaches, and conjunctivitis. The descriptions include recipes for each treatment (most treatments are a combination of several different products).

Discusses the economic importance of cola in internal and external trade. Provides statistics on production, export, and pricing in the northwest. For example, in 1980 at least 20,000 tonnes were produced in the northwest, the biggest production areas. The price of cola varies greatly, depending on the season (a nut might cost between 10 and 30 FCFA during the peak season, but its price can reach as much as 75 FCFA in the off-season). Most of the exported cola nut is traded with Nigeria and Chad. Provides statistics on the export prices for cola nut.

Finally, the article also describes the social importance of cola in different regions of the country. For Muslims, this nut is one of the only stimulants allowed by their faith. In many southern regions of Cameroon, the cola nut is seen as a symbol of love and friendship, it features in many social ceremonies: funerals, weddings, and initiations. It is an important symbol of reconciliation and friendship.

234. Nsangou, A. No date. La contribution des “buyem sellems” au developpement. Institut Sciences Humaines, Ministry for Higher Education and Scientific Research, Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

A general discussion of trade and traders in the Douala market area. Discusses the trade between Cameroon’s southern (e.g. palm oil) and northern regions (e.g. parkia locust bean, calabash, shea butter nut). Examines how colonial takeover has changed internal trade traditions. Also discusses the people who are involved in wholesale and retail trading. Notes that 57% of the market salespeople are women; of these, only one-third are married although more than three-quarters of them are responsible for supporting families. Notes that most sellers are involved in these activities in order to meet specific income needs. Their prices often reflect cash needs rather than the comparative value of the product. The study emphasises the central role women play in meeting cash income needs.

235. Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. 1987. West African wildlife: a resource in jeopardy. Unasylva 156, 39(2):27-35.

This article focuses on how the over-exploitation of West African (and particularly Ghanaian) wildlife is threatening the existence of many species. Wild animal meat is commonly consumed and preferred in this region. Over-exploitation of wildlife populations is the result of changes in traditional hunting and management practices, increased human population, lack of suitable and adequate substitutes for bushmeat, and a reduction in wildlife habitat. All mammals, with the exception of rodents, are over-exploited. Data on the bushmeat trade is presented. Cultural (some information on sacred groves is included), medicinal, and income-earning uses of wildlife are also discussed.

236. Nweke, F., Walker, J., Okoro, E., Hahn, N.D. 1985. Compound farming in southeastern Nigeria. Draft Document, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

A village level study of farming practices in Imo and Anambra states. Contains descriptive analyses of compound and far field cultivation systems including: land holding patterns, land tenure practices, methods of soil fertility “regeneration”, analyses of crop plant species and their uses, livestock production, household nutrition and demographics. The study illustrates the central importance of tree species in these systems.

Common tree species fulfill a number of requirements providing food, medicine, fuelwood, fodder, soil fertility regeneration, boundary markers and live fences. Tree components are especially used to counter seasonal variations in staple food supply. Among the most common on-farm trees are Dacryodes edulis, Pterocarpus sp., Newbouldia laevis, Spondias mombin, Ficus sp., Irvingia sp.. Cola acuminata, Elaeis guineensis, Chrysophyllum albidum and Anacardium occidentalis. Provides an interesting analysis of the proportion of different foods from compound and far fields used for home consumption, sale or as a seed source. Finds that the highest proportion of tree crops are retained for home consumption. A larger proportion of the food comes from compounds. For example 78% of Irvingia gabonensis produce in compound farms is consumed by households, the remaining 22% is sold in local markets. Provides information on preferred and common species for fodder, fuelwood, medicines (a few), and those used for boundary delineation.

237. Nwoboshi, L.C. 1986. Meeting the challenges of deforestation in Nigeria through effective reforestation. In Oguntala, A.B. (ed.), 1986 Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria, Minna, Nigeria (December).

Notes that deforestation has increased interest in and awareness of the importance of non-timber forest products, especially food products. Summarises the information on edible forest species that is available in Nigeria. Argues that effective reforestation must include a programme of management for non-timber forest products.

238. Nwoboshi, L.C. 1987. Regeneration success of natural management, enrichment planting and plantations in West Africa. In Vincent, J. and Mergen, F. (eds.). Natural management of tropical” moist forests: silviculture and management prospects of sustained utilization, Yale University, New Haven, USA.

This paper argues that production of “minor forest products” is becoming increasingly difficult as deforestation continues. Nwoboshi explores ways of incorporating MFPs into forest management through “ecological engineering” - enrichment plantings or management of natural forest areas for MFPs.

239. Nyanteng, V.K. 1979. Supplementary occupations and incomes of cocoa farmers in the Suhun Agricultural District of Ghana.’ Discussion Paper 8. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana, Logon, Ghana.

This study examines the off-farm income-earning activities of male and female farmers. The decline in the cocoa market has led to an increased reliance on off-farm activities. Thirty percent of the “small” farmers spend the vast majority of their time on off-farm activities. Data on average income earned in different activities is presented.

Women are primarily involved in trading and food processing. A few are artisans (e.g. weavers, cloth dyers and basket makers), and herbalists. Drink processing (especially palm wine tapping) and artisanry are the main off-farm activities for men. (This study does not consider those activities for which people migrate.) Other men’s activities include hunting, charcoal production, trading and herb production.

240. Obi, N.S. 1985. Economic survey of traditional agroforestry systems in Anambra State of Nigeria. MSc Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Examines the importance of trees within farming systems in this region. Obi found that preservation and planting of trees on farm lands was widespread both in compound farms and in near fields; 37% of the trees in these fields were planted, not wildlings.

241. Obi, J.K. and Tuley, J. 1973. The bush fallow and ley farming in the oil palm belt of southeastern Nigeria. Miscellaneous Report, Land Resources Division, Nigeria.

Describes the bush fallow system in southeastern Nigeria, including the crops and livestock involved. Includes an inventory of the trees found in the bush fallows as well as information on the uses of forest products garnered from these areas. The dominant species are Alchornea cordifolia, Acioa barteri and Anthonotha macrophylla; common species include Dialium guineense, Cnestis ferruginea and Harungana madagascarensis. Acioa barteri is sometimes planted, it coppices well and Is especially valued for fuelwood.

242. Ocansey, J.M. 1985. A survey of wood energy utilization within a rural community. Thesis, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

A household fuelwood study in a rural community close to Accra, Ghana. Households in this community depend on fuelwood for all their domestic and processing needs. Fuelwood trade to Accra and other urban centres is an extremely important economic activity for these villagers, especially during the fishing season. On average 50.94 m3 wood leaves the community every day. Fuelwood is collected from natural woodlands (extremely degraded), farm lands, fallow lands and public plantations and private woodlots, though the main fuelwood source is farm and fallow land. Wood resources are being extensively over-exploited, changing household usage and user-rights practices.

Wood is the main fuel for small enterprises such as baking, fish frying and smoking, alcohol distilling and other food processing activities which provide essential sources of income to many local residents. Presents data on fuelwood consumption by different small enterprises. Fuelwood production for trade is carried out largely by men, while the trade of fuelwood (middlemen, retailers, wholesalers) is dominated by women. On average 1.37 m3 of fuelwood is consumed per person annually.

Fuelwood can now only be gathered on farmer’s own land. A person who does not own land is often forced to purchase fuelwood. Individuals must obtain permits (issued by the Forestry Department) to collect from public plantations, however traders generally obtain these outside the community.

243. Ogle, B.M. and Grivetti, S. 1985. Legacy of the chameleon: edible wild plants in the kingdom of Swaziland: a cultural, ecological and nutritional study. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16(3):193-208, 17(1):1-64.

This study provides an excellent example of how information from different “disciplines” must be synthesised in order to understand the role of wild plants in peoples’ day to day lives. Ogle and Grivetti examine the cultural, ecological and nutritional aspects of wild plant use. They include a quantitative analysis of the frequency with which different species are consumed. Wild plant resources have long been neglected by development planners, but are extensively used by rural people to supplement their diet. More than forty percent of the agriculturalists interviewed claimed they consumed more wild plants than cultivated varieties. Indeed, Ogle and Grivetti found that over 220 wild plant species were commonly consumed. There was considerable variation between different ecological zones. The reasons given for the continued use of wild plants were superior taste, cultural value, greater health benefits and low cost. Nonetheless, many species were no longer available and many felt the use of wild plants would decline.

244. Ogubu, J. 1973. Seasonal hunger in tropical Africa as a cultural phenomenon. The Onich Ibo of Nigeria and Chakaka Poka of Malawi. Africa 43:317-332,

Discusses seasonal food shortages and agricultural cycles in two African societies. Indigenous wild food resources are of great importance in the periods just prior to agricultural harvests.

245. Oguntala, A.B. (ed.). 1986. The challenge of deforestation in Nigeria: proceedings of the 1986 Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria, Minna, Nigeria (December).

A series of papers which analyse the impact of deforestation on the Nigerian environment, people and economy. Fuelwood and other wood products are now in short supply in many areas of Nigeria. An estimated 2 million people are employed in forest industries, the majority of whom work part time in fuelwood and pole supply (only 50,000 people are employed in the production of processing of logs). There has been a great decline in forest area, including reserved forest area. The ecological impacts of this deforestation include flooding, water supply shortages, soil erosion and increased storm damage. (See entries for Okafor and Nwoboshi.)

246. Okafor, J.C. 1977. Development of forest tree crops for food supplies in Nigeria. Forest Ecology and Management 1(3):235-244.

Reviews findings and research on the distribution of indigenous forest and farm trees with edible products. The most favoured species are incorporated into farm and village areas. Among the more common species are: Treculia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Dacryodes edulis, Chrysophyllum albidum and Irvingia gabonensis. A general discussion of the socioeconomic importance of edible trees provides some interesting information: one market survey revealed that foods from 44 forest tree species were being sold at competitive prices.

247. Okafor, J.C. 1979. Edible indigenous woody plants in the rural economy of the Nigerian forest zone. In Okali, D.U.U. (ed.). Proceedings of a MAB state of knowledge workshop on the Nigerian rainforest ecosystem, Nigeria, 24-26 January. Sponsored by Man and the Biosphere Programme and the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, pp. 262-301.

This chapter explores the role of indigenous tree and liana species in the lives of rural people in southern Nigeria. It reviews the different dietary roles of these species: Treculia africana fruit are consumed as a staple, while the fruit of Pentaclethra macrophylla and Dacryodes edulis are used as food supplements, the processed fruits of Irvingia gabonensis, Mucuna sloanei and Parkia clappertoniana are used as condiments, and the leaves of Pterocarpus sp., Myrianthus arboreus, Vernonia amygdalina, Gnetum sp. And Ceiba pentandra are consumed as vegetables. Discusses different farming practices and tenure arrangements. Also discusses the households’ non-food use of trees: as structural material, stakes, mulch, animal fodder, firewood, for medicines, dyes, fibres, and essential oils. Provides a few illustrative examples of the symbolic role specific trees play, e.g. the breaking of cola nut is a gesture of welcome and hospitality; bread fruit (Treculia africana) is served in ceremonies to celebrate a girl’s departure from her family to join her husband. It is also served at women’s burial ceremonies. Chrysophyllum albidum is used by fetish “healers” and is frequently protected in sacred groves.

248. Okafor, J.C. 1981. Woody plants of nutritional importance in traditional farming systems of the Nigerian humid tropics. PhD Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

An extremely interesting and thorough report on the household use of indigenous farm and wild trees. Presents the results of an extensive market study of indigenous edible woody plant foods (weekly at five markets over a three year period) examining the seasonal availability of products and their comparative prices over a three year period. Describes the prevailing farming practices and the roles of and benefits from these trees in these different systems. Discusses farmers’ species preferences (approximately 400 interviews). Examines the botanic, ecologic (including trade and market potential), economic, and nutrition aspects of five extremely common forest and farm trees: Irvingia gabonensis, Dacryodes edulis, Treculia africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Chrysophyllum albidum. Examines the density and distribution of edible woody plants (117 species identified) on farms.

Okafor found that in the midwestern and southeastern zones these five major species were present on more than 72% of the farms. In the mid-western zone, Dacryodes edulis was found on all surveyed farms and Irvingia gabonensis was found on 95% of the farms. Analyses the frequency with which trees are planted, transplanted and protected. Presents data on fruiting periods of the study species, and the seasonal variations in sale and home consumption of their products (over 50% of the produce from the five study species is sold). Presents information on how these tree foods are used and processed. Includes information on the nutritional composition of these different foods. Irvingia gabonensis is an especially good source of fat, while Pentaclethra macrophylla is high in protein. The study species are becoming increasingly popular on farms and fetch comparable or higher prices than traditional cultivated crops.

249. Okafor, J.C. 1983. Horticulturally promising indigenous wild plant species of the Nigerian forest zone. Paper presented at Sixth African Symposium on Horticultural Crops, Ibadan, Nigeria. (Published in Acta Horticulturae 123:165-176 (December)).

Reviews the results of research conducted on edible indigenous woody plants in southern Nigeria. Notes that an inventory of edible wild trees revealed a total of 112 exploited species. Market studies have revealed that 57 species of wild and semi-wild edible woody plants are available seasonally in markets in the southeastern region of Nigeria. Notes that most of the wild fruit and vegetable species are expensive, though available during strategic periods (e.g. during the hungry season for fruits and the dry season for vegetables). Okafor adds that high prices are probably due to scarcity and consumer preferences. Commonly marketed species include Chrysophyllum albidum, Dacryodes edulis, Irvingia gabonensis, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Treculia africana, Parkia clappertoniana, Dennettia tripetala, Garcinia cola, Pterocarpus sp. and. Afzelia bella.

250. Okafor, J.C. 1986. Towards diversification and improvement of alley-farming systems in the Nigerian humid tropics. Paper presented at the 1986 Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria. In Oguntala, A.B. (ed.). The challenge of deforestation in Nigerian proceedings of the 1986 Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria, Minna, Nigeria (December).

A critical analysis of alley cropping as proposed by IITA. Okafor notes that this system is not being fully exploited because it emphasises only arable crops in the alleys, and Leucaena sp. and Gliricida sp. in hedgerows. Drawing on recent findings on the ecology and propagation of indigenous food tree species, as well as information on the multitude of tree uses, he proposes ways of improving both farming practices and the current alley-cropping model. He suggests ways of diversifying the system using indigenous species mixes, pruning regimes and diversified alley management (eg. variations in width) He notes that the timing of alley cropping is limited in scope compared with traditional farming systems of the SE region. The paper includes information on the uses for different tree species.

251. Okafor, J.C. and Fernandas, E.C.M. 1987. Compound farms of southeastern Nigeria: a predominant agroforestry home garden system with crops and small livestock. Agroforestry Systems 5(2):153-168.

In southeastern Nigeria farms are often smaller than a hectare (55%); the vast majority (90%) are less than 4 hectares. There are three different types of farming systems: compound, near fields, and distant fields. This article identifies 171 species of food-bearing woody plants. Most livestock fodder is from trees and shrubs. The common species that are used for fodder are Ficus sp., Hymenodictyon pachyantha, Irvingia gabonensis, Nauclea latifolia, Newbouldia laevis and Pterocarpus santalinoides. On-farm trees that provide a regular food supply are generally found in compound farms (e.g. Dacryodes edulis and Vernonia amygdalina), while species that are less frequently used or difficult to harvest are more common in the distant fields. There is a greater diversity of tree species in the forest zone farms compared with those in the savannah region. The compound farm system features diversified planting and harvesting in order to circumvent difficulties with crop storage. The market for, and income earned from the products of certain tree species (e.g. Irvingia gabonensis) is examined. A list of common species along with their uses is included.

252. Oke, O.H. 1979. Some aspects of traditional African foods. In Inglett (ed.). Tropical foods: chemistry and nutrition. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Provides information on the food preparation and consumption practices of different societies. Forest foods are important components of many sauces and condiments. Provides nutritional analyses of several common dishes, which include some forest food products.

253. Okigbo, B.N. 1975. Neglected plants of horticultural and nutritional importance in traditional farming systems of tropical Africa. 9th International Symposium Horticulture Society. Kumasi, Ghana 12-17 August. Acta horticulturae 53:131-150.

Distinguishes between plants found only in cultivation (e.g. Treculia africana), those that are protected on farmland, selectively planted or harvested from wild groves (e.g. Elaeis guineensis), those that are both protected on farmlands and found in the wild (e.g. Monodora myristica), and those that are found only in the wild (e.g. Gnetum africanum). Examines the wild species that are common dietary supplements especially during lean period. Discusses the tree species whose leaves (e.g. Pterocarpus soyauxii) or fruit (e.g. Canarium schweinfurthii) flourish during the hunger period.

254. Okigbo, B.N. 1980. Plants and food in Igbo culture. Presented as the Ahiajoku Lecture, 28 November. Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria (unpublished).

A general discussion on the nutritional and household uses of plants (especially “indigenous” species) in Igbo culture (in southeastern Nigeria). Provides extensive descriptive information on the traditional uses of wild plants including species used in building and constructing homes. Pentaclethra macrophylla, Dialium guineense, Newbouldia laevis, and Chlorophora excelsa are commonly used for poles. Oil and raphia palm petioles are used for the cross-slats and Marantochloa cuspidata leaves and Thaumatococcus daniellii are used for roofing. Wild plants are also used to make furniture, agricultural and household equipment (e.g. Pterocarpus soyauxii, Dialium guineense and Irvingia gabonensis for mortars and N. Laevis, P. Soyauxii and D. Guineense for pestle) and canoes (Afromosia elata and Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum). The paper also reviews those plant species that are used to produce medicines, beverages, condiments, wrappers and packages, musical instruments, ceremonial objects, mystical and magical objects. The symbolic value of certain sacred, protected species is listed. Okigbo notes that many of the uses are disappearing.

255. Okigbo, B.N. 1983. Fruits and vegetable production and extension services in. Africa. Acta horticulturae 123:23-27.

Discusses the contribution of wild plants to the diet. Notes that more than 1,500 species of wild plants are (or have been) consumed by different African peoples. Distinguishes between those wild species consumed regularly (e.g. Gnetum sp.) and those used only in times of scarcity (e.g. Vitex doniana).

256. Okigbo, B.N. 1985. The African food crisis: potentials for broadening the food base with traditional food crops. Paper presented at an FAO meeting on broadening the food base with traditional food plants, Harare, Zimbabwe.

A general discussion of food security issues and the decline in the use of traditional food plants. Presents a synopsis on the evolution of African (principally Nigerian) farming systems (e.g. shortening fallow, expansion of cassava production, increased specialisation). Provides examples of commonly consumed wild and semi-wild fruits, roots and pulse plants. Appendices include: listings of commonly consumed species, tables on nutrient composition of forest fruits, leaves, seeds and mushrooms.

257. Okigbo, B.N. 1986. Broadening the food base in Africa: the potential of traditional food plants. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 12(19):4-17.

Describes some traditional food plants of different African farming systems, including some tree and forest foods. Notes that cash cropping has had a negative impact on nutrition in two ways; exotic crop species are more ecologically vulnerable thus the risk of loss is greater and cash earnings cannot always buy equivalent needed foods; diets have become less diverse.

258. Okigbo, B.N. no date. Cropping systems in the humid tropics of West Africa and their improvement. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Includes a discussion of the wild plants and forest trees found on farms, and compound farms where there is a rich diversity of species. Dominant species in fallows include: Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Harungana madagascariensis, Dialium guineensis, Monodora tenuifolia and Napoleona vogelii. Some species are planted in fallow, Acioa barteri and Antonatha macrophylla for example.

259. Okiy, G. 1960. Indigenous Nigerian food plants. Journal of the West African Science Association 6:117-121.

A summary of the research that has been conducted on the dietary role of wild plants in Nigeria. Provides information on the most important species consumed (including many farm and forest tree species).

260. Okoli, B.E. 1984. Wild and cultivated cucurbits in Nigeria. Economic Botany 38(3):350-357.

Many wild and cultivated species in the Cucurbitaceae sp. are common in the Nigerian diet. This article discusses some common food varieties, Nigerian cooking and processing practices. It presents nutrient composition data for a few species. Notes that the fruits, leaves and seeds of some wild species are used as medicines. For example, Momordica balsamina fruit are used externally as a balsam; a decoction is taken as an emitic, purgative, and stomatic. The roots may be used in aphrodisiac prescriptions, and the leaves are used to treat breast cancer.

261. Olatunbosum, D.; Olayide, S.O.; Idusogie, E.G.; Abiagom, J.D. 1972. Role of fish and animal products in Nigerian agricultural development and nutrition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 1(3):235-243.

A dietary study highlighting the importance of fish and bushmeat in the diet of rural Nigerians. Fish supply an average 29 g protein per capita daily in Nigeria. Bushmeat supplies 9.7 g and beef 9.1 g (only wild herbivores were considered “bushmeat” in this survey, thus bushmeat probably supplies a far greater portion of animal protein).

262. Olawoye, O.O. and Ajayi, S.S. 1975. Highlights of bushmeat production and marketing in Nigeria. Bulletin 3. Federal Department of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Results of bushmeat marketing surveys reveal that the volume of bushmeat traded is declining. The most commonly traded species are those that are highly productive, especially the rodents - grasscutter and giant rat. Large antelopes and monkeys are rarely traded as their populations have dwindled drastically.

263. Oliver, B. 1959. Nigeria’s useful plants. Part II: medicinal plants. Nigerian Field 24(4):160-182.

Describes 50 plant species that are commonly used in traditional medicine. For example, the oil from Carapa procera seeds is used to dress wounds and treat smallpox; the bark is used as a quinine substitute and bitter tonic.

264. Oliver-Bever, B. 1986. Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 375 pp.

Provides an extensive review of the important medicinal plants of the West African humid zone. Groups plant species by their medicinal actions including: plants which affect the cardiovascular, nervous, and hormonal systems, and those with antibiotic, insecticidal and molluscicidal properties. Throughout, the plant descriptions include information on local medicinal uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological and clinical actions. There is no discussion of the efficacy or prevalence of use of these plant medicines.

265. Oomen, H.A.P.C. and Grubben, G. 1977. Tropical leaf vegetables in human nutrition. Communication No. 69, Department of Agriculture, Research Institute, Voor de Trojaen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A study on the use, production and nutritional value of tropical leaf vegetables. The emphasis is on home-produced leaf vegetables. However, some wild plant and tree leaves are included, among them Adansonia digitata, Moringa oleifera, Athyrium esculentum, Morinda citrifolia, Gnetum gnemon, Carica papaya, Sesbania grandiflora. Many tropical and leaf vegetables are both cultivated and found in the wild, thus it can be difficult to determine the source of a leaf product.

266. Orimoyegun, S.O. and Kadeba, O. 1983. Potential of obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) as a leaf vegetable. Presented at the Sixth African Symposium on Horticultural Crops, Ibadan, Nigeria, 19-25 July 1981. (Printed in Acta horticulturae 123:99-103 (December)).

Presents the results of nutrient analysis of the young leaves of obeche. Obeche is a good source of protein and phorphorous. Its leaves are widely used as a vegetable in rural areas, but are not consumed by urbanites. Suggests that this is because of low availability rather than changes in taste.

267. Orraca-Tetteh, R. 1987. Personal communication. Director, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences. University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

The department (students) has conducted many village level food consumption studies. Though forest food consumption data has been inadequately analysed there is a considerable amount of information on forest foods consumption. Giant rat, grasscutters, and snails (and other small game) are all frequently consumed. Bushmeat consumption appears to vary greatly from village to village, and household to household. It is however, generally more frequently consumed than domestic meat. Fish is the most common source of animal protein. In a few cases bushmeat was consumed as much as 4 or 5 times a week. Dawadawa (fermented parkia beans), palm oil and palm kernel, shea butter (Vitellaria sp., syn. Butyrospermum sp.), and leaf “vegetables” are regularly consumed in many households. When in season, mushrooms and fruit are also common foods.

268. Osei-Manu, P. 1980. The nutritive value and the influence of maturity on some leafy vegetables. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana (unpublished).

Discusses the importance of leaf vegetables in the Ghanaian diet. Includes information on the nutrient composition, the quality and quantity of leaves consumed (includes an analysis of leaves of some wild species). Notes that gathered wild leaves are especially valuable during the dry season, adding variety to the diet; they can be good sources of vitamins and minerals.

269. Osei-Owusu, A. 1981. Survey of wild food plants in a Ghanaian village. Project Paper, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

A village survey conducted in the Ashante-Akim District of Ghana, the researcher’s village. The study identifies 28 commonly consumed wild food plant species (including 18 tree species, 4 shrub, 4 liana, and 2 herb species). It lists the edible parts, the ways they are used, and the habitats in which they are found. The majority of plants have parts which are eaten “in the bush” as snacks (e.g. fruit of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides, Myrianthus arboreus, Napoleonaea leonensis and Dacryodes klaineana), or are added to soups and sauces for flavouring (the ground stem of Albizia zygia, the leaves of Bombax buonopozense, and the fruits of Ficus capensis and Tetrapleura tetraptera). Others have plant parts that are used in unique ways. The stems of the liana, Byttneria catalpifolia provide a source of drinking water.

270. Oyakhilome, A.S.O. 1985. Some neglected Nigerian ancient useful tree crops. Need for revival and incorporation into present farming systems. Bendel Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Benin City, Nigeria.

A general discussion of the role of traditional food products in the rural Nigerian diet. Gives a list of species and detailed descriptions of their ecology, botany, and chemical composition. The paper provides a great deal of detailed information on the food tree species: Pentaclethra sp., Parkia clappertoniana, Artocarpus sp., Treculia africana, Ricinus communis Lecaniodiscus cupanioides, Spondias mombin, Irvingia gabonensis and Dacryodes edulis. The seeds of Irvingia gabonensis are used in one third of all soup preparations.

271. Oyenuga, V.A. 1968. Nigeria’s food and feeding stuffs: their chemistry and nutritive value. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Presents information on the chemical composition and nutritive value of important foods. Some forest (e.g. Elaeis guineensis) and farm (e.g. Treculia africana) tree products are included.

272. Padoch, C., Chota Inuma, J., DeJong, W., and Unruh, J. 1985. Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Perú. Agroforestry Systems 3:47-58.

Describes a market-oriented agroforestry system where tree products provide important food and cash-earning resources. Trees are encouraged and incorporated into the farm and fallow systems. Important cultivated fruits include: Poraqueiba sericea, Bactris gasipaes, Chrysophyllum cainito, Pourouma cecropiaefolia, Inga edulis, Anacardium occidentale, and Bertholletia excelsa, whose products provide an average 63% of the household annual income. Also important are the forest trees for fruit, fibres for handicrafts and medicinal plants. The fallow fields are managed as a habitat for wild game which is either consumed or sold.

273. Pagezy, E. 1982. Seasonal hunger as experienced by the Oto and the Twa of a Ntomba village in the equatorial forest. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 12(3):139-153.

A study of seasonal variations in the nutritional status of Ntombe village women. The rainy season is the hunger period, principally because animal foods are less common (especially fish and caterpillars); there is a corresponding decrease in work. This anthropometric survey illustrates seasonal variation in weight and fat stores among the women.

274. Pélé, J. and Berre, S. 1967. Les aliments d’origine végétale au Cameroun. Le Cameroun Agricole, Pastoral et Forestier No. 108, 109, 110, 111. ORSTOM, Paris, France.

Discussion of the common fruit, leaves, mushrooms, and bark consumed as snacks, as supplements, or as staples in the Cameroonian diet. Includes information on the nutrient composition of some tree and forest foods including the fruit of Artocarpus communis, Pachylobus edulis, Baillonella toxisperma (syn. Mimusops djave), Ricinodendron africanum, Irvingia gabonensis, Coula edulis. Cola acuminata, Garcinia cola, and Terminalia catappa. Lists the species whose leaves are added to soups and sauces, and those whose parts are gathered and used as flavourings and condiments (e.g. the bark of the forest tree Scorodophloeus zenkeri, added to sauces to give a garlic-like flavour). Distinguishes between those that are cultivated, those that are gathered from the immediate surrounding area, and those that are gathered in the “bush”. Notes that products from the bush are especially valued at times of scarcity (e.g. dry season). Provides nutrition composition information for all the commonly used leaves. Generally, leaves are high in iron, calcium and phosphorus; some species are also good sources of protein and vitamin C. Mushrooms are regularly consumed in the rainy season, and are available in most markets; they are especially valued as meat substitutes. Distinguishes between those products which are marketed locally (e.g. Pachylobus edulis fruit) and those that are gathered only for home consumption (e.g. seeds of Terminalia catappa). The discussion is fairly general, thus it is difficult to assess the frequency with which foods are used and the value people place on them. Nonetheless, it does include a great deal of descriptive information on forest foods.

275. Pélissier, P. 1966. Les paysans du Sénégal. Les civilisations agraires du Cayor à la Casamance, Sénégal. Centre Nationale de Recherches Scientifiques, Paris, France.

A detailed study of the Cayor from Casamance. Discusses their living and agricultural practices as well as their use of the surrounding natural resources. Describes the changes in use rights of tree and forest resources: formerly rights to forest resources were “open” now, rights to forest areas neighboring farmland are clearly defined, especially for palm products. Palm wine and palm oil are the most important products garnered from forest areas. Palm oil is marketed and provides a source of non-farm income. The use of palm wine has decreased with the spread of Islam. Forest resources are used in house construction, for making agricultural equipment and household items, and for fuel. Hunting is also still an important activity in the off-peak agricultural season.

276. Pelissier, P. 1980. L’arbre dans les paysages agraires de l’Afrique Noire. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 17(3r4):127-137. ORSTOM, Paris, France.

This general paper on the role of trees in African farming systems focuses primarily on arid and semi-arid regions. It discusses the importance of particular trees such as the oil palm, raphia palm, baobab, and various acacias.

277. Perrois, L. 1971. Problèmes d’analyse de l’art traditionnel du Gabon. Travaux Techniques 32, ORSTOM, Paris, France.

Discusses the role and meaning of wood sculptures and ceremonial objects, which often serve as a vehicle of communication with ancestors. The type of wood that is used can often vary based on the object being made, its purpose and the ethnic group that is involved in its construction. Discusses the qualities and symbolic value of some commonly used species.

278. Phillis, D. et al. 1982. Village food systems in West Africa. International African Institute, Washington D.C., USA.

A comprehensive diet and socioeconomic survey of five villages in Gambia. Fruit is widely consumed when in season, but fruiting seasons are short. Fresh leaf consumption is also seasonal. Baobab leaf flour is used in about 10% of the meals during the dry season. Wild food plants are frequently consumed when available. Snack foods contribute 3-10% of the total daily energy and protein consumption. They are consumed year round, but their prevalence varies by season and their frequency increases during the harvest season.

279. Pokam Wadja, K. 1979. Artisanats et commerce de détail a New Bell (Douala, Cameroon). Memoire DES. Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

This study of more than 5,000 artisans from the New Bell quarter of Douala finds that most artisans there are men between the ages of 20 and 30. The research presents information on the numbers of different enterprises in the region; woodworking enterprises are among the most common (about 200 workshops, representing 17% of the total number of enterprises). Other forest resource dependent enterprises are sculpture in wood and ivory, rattan working, and medicinal plant production and healing. Those working in rattan enterprises note that as the industry expanded, it has become increasingly difficult to obtain raw materials.

280. Portère, R. 1974. Un curieux élément culturel Arabico-Islamique et Neoafricain: les baguettes végétales mâchés servant de frottes-dents. Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et Botanique Appliquées 21.

Provides a catalogue of chewing sticks used throughout the world. Throughout West Africa the bark, roots and stems of 123 species are used for cleaning teeth and treating dental problems. This article describes the plants’ uses and the species’ distributions. A description of masticatory plants is also included.

281. Poulsen, G. 1981. Important forest products in Africa other than wood and wood extractives: a preliminary study. Consultancy report prepared for FAO Forestry Department. RAF/78/025, FAO, Rome, Italy.

An extremely interesting report which pulls together information on the myriad products gleaned from African forest areas. The information is arranged by product type, e.g. dyes, cork, resin, silk, wild animals, etc. The author stresses that there is little systematically gathered information. He notes that foods and beverages,, medicines and other pharmaceuticals are extremely important. Poulsen provides detailed suggestions for further research on specific forest products.

282. Poulsen, G. 1982. The non-wood products of African forests. Unasylva 34(137):15-21.

A descriptive account of the multitude of products derived from African forests (principally West African). Includes many illustrative examples. Poulsen provides examples of many forest gathered foods. He distinguishes between those fruits that are eaten fresh, those that are processed, and those that are used to extract oil. Examples of other forest products are also included, especially fodder, medicines and raw materials for small scale enterprises.

283. Prescott-Allen, R. and Prescott-Allen, C. 1982. What’s wildlife worth? Economic contributions of wild plants and animals to developing countries. Earthscan, IIED, London, Great Britain.

A short book illustrating the economic, cultural, food and future (genetic resources) value of wildlife. Provides good syntheses and estimates of the role wild foods play in the diets of people in developing countries. For example, in Cameroon’s moist forest zone, bushmeat supplies 70-80% of the annual animal protein consumed, compared with 2.8% for the country as a whole. They present information indicating that the price for bushmeat far exceeds domestic meat prices.

284. Profizi, J-P. 1983. Les palmiers raphia du sud Benin: utilisations actuelles et potentielles. Notes Africaines 178.

A review and evaluation of the uses of raphia palm in southern Benin. There are four species found in different regions of Benin: Raphia hookerii, R. vinifera, R. sudanica, and R. humilis. The leaves are still used domestically for roof-making, and In some areas sold in markets for this purpose. Leaf spines (canes) are used in house construction. Profizi reports some data on the quantities of “spines” used in house building. They are also used for making fishing equipment, poles, traps and boats.

The most commonly used raphia species in the southern region of Benin is R. hookerii. It is often the only tree left in degraded swamplands. In the Porto-Novo region there are many artisans who specialise in raphia product production (furniture and household equipment). In the south, raphia is most commonly used in wine production. Profizi provides information on the methods of extraction, nutritional value and markets for palm wine.

Profizi also includes a description of communal management techniques in Benin. In one community, the groves are exploited for their sap (to make palm wine) on a three year rotation (in addition, the region being tapped is allowed to “rest” for about six months during the rains, when it is too difficult to tap the palms). In another community, people have learned to raise the palms from seed. They protect seed trees from tapping, and distribute seeds among the community. Saplings are then planted into people’s private parcels of palm grove.

285. Profizi, J-P. 1986. Biologie et modes de gestion des mare cages à Raphia hookeri au sud-est du Benin. Journal d’Agriculture et de Botanique Appliquée 33:49-58.

An excellent article describing the use and management of raphia palm swamps in southern Benin. The most important products are palm wine and alcohol. The introduction of new alcohol distilling technologies has had a profound effect on the management and exploitation of the palm swamps. In some villages, increased exploitation of raphia palms has led to changes in ownership and management of swamps. The swamps have sometimes been parcelled out into private inheritable plots where the operating villagers have further developed the arboricuture of Raphia hookeri. In other instances, the swamp parcels have been converted to food crops.

286. Puri, G. and Talalaj, D. 1964. A survey of some plants used in native medicine in West Africa of interest to India. Department Botany, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

Lists 170 plant species commonly used in traditional medical treatments in Ghana and Nigeria. Describes the illnesses that are treated, the plant parts that are used in treatments, and the chemical constituents of the relevant plant part.

287. Reynolds, L. and Atta-Krah, A.N. (eds.) 1987. Browse and small ruminant production in southeastern Nigeria. Proceedings of a symposium. International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), Humid Zone Programme, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

A collection of papers on small livestock production and management in southeastern Nigeria. Includes several studies on the use of browse. Goats are the most important small stock. There are different types of management, although free ranging appears to be the most common. In some regions cut and carry systems are common. Most browse appears to come from bush fallows: this study provides lists of the forest trees that provide fodder. Forest and fallow species also provide the only livestock medicines available to most farmers.

288. Riss, M.D. 1984. La place de la femme dans les mutations internes de l’économie rurale a partir d’un exemple Sénégalais (Kaolock région au sud Sénégal) (unpublished).

Gathering forest (and tree) products is an extremely important dry season activity for most women in the Kaolock region of Senegal. All women collect forest products to sell (as opposed to commonly held notion that gathering is primarily a subsistence activity). Tree product availability varies regionally; important species include Detarium senegalense, D. microcarpa, Anacardium occidentale and Parkia sp..

289. Robinson, P.T. and Peal, A. 1981. Liberia’s wildlife - time for decision. Zoonooz (San Diego, USA) 54(10) 7-21.

This paper reviews the historic roots of Liberian wildlife exploitation. Bushmeat is the most common meat (excluding fish) consumed in Liberia. It is even “imported” from neighbouring Sierra Leone and Guinea. There is no control of hunting, and the resources are rapidly being depleted. Live animals and trophies are also traded to the export market. Robinson and Peal discuss the need for conservation and expansion of current efforts to establish national parks.

290. deRosny, E. 1977. Les yeux de ma chèvre. Collection Terre Humaine, Plon, Paris, France.

A novel written by a Catholic priest from Cameroon about traditional healing practices. Describes his life and experiences living among traditional healers. Reviews the socio-cultural importance of different forest medicines and the importance of particular city and village trees in healing ceremonies. Assesses the efficacy of their cures, focusing on aspects of faith and psychological treatments. Notes that for many healers it is becoming increasingly difficult to find medicinal plants. Discusses the cultural beliefs associated with forests. And notes that frequently the plant’s location and the time of collection are crucial to the treatment’s effectiveness.

291. Sackey, F.V. 1977. A survey of traditional methods of food storage and preservation in some villages and Accra city districts. Student paper. Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana (unpublished).

This paper discusses traditional food preservation methods including storage bins and barns, processing smoking and drying and storage underground. Wood ash is commonly used as an insecticide in storage areas. It is also used as a ripening agent for some fruit. Describes maize storage structures which are built with poles and lianas.

292. Sale, J.B. 1978. Report on the importance and value of wild plants and animals in Africa. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.

Lists (and illustrates) the multitude of products derived from wild natural resources: including food and beverages, medicines, tannins, gums, dyes and stains, construction materials, firewood, soil conservation, sacred plants, lighting, boats, musical instruments, fibre products (basketry) etc.

293. Sale, J.B. 1981. The importance and values of wild plants and animals in Africa. Prepared for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.

Summarises the available information on the economic and cultural importance of wildlife (both plants and animals) in Africa. Includes useful case specific data on the frequency with which certain products are used (e.g. wild relish plants). And reports on the economic importance of hunting, the bushmeat market, the nutritional composition of common wild foods, and the medicinal use of those resources. Using case study material from the anthropological literature, discusses the social and cultural significance of wildlife resources.

294. Sama, A. 1981. Herbal medicine and insecticidal plants in Pujehun district. Sierra Leone. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Sierra Leone, Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Sierra Leone (unpublished).

This paper presents the results of a survey that was carried out in Pujehun district. Sierra Leone. Seventy-three plant species were collected and analysed for their chemical components. The potential for use of some local plants in insecticides is discussed (e.g. Mammea africana has an insecticidal effect on drosophila larvae). Reports the way these plants are used in traditional Mende medicine. Descriptions of the plant’s, medical use and the medicine’s methods of preparation are included. For example, the leaves of Spondias mombin are used to ease labour pains in pregnant women and control the stomach pains after childbirth.

295. Sanogo, D. 1983. Bois sacré: temple ou école? Revue Ivoirienne d’Anthropologie et de Sociologie 3:59-62.

A somewhat theoretical discussion of the role of sacred groves in traditional Senoufo (Côte d’Ivoire) society. Discusses the types of experiences - religious and educative - that take place in the sacred groves. Notes that each family has its own sacred grove and that young men must be initiated in their family’s sacred grove. Concludes that these initiations focus on morality issues and provide important symbolic links to family and cultural history.

296. Sarpong, K. 1986. Orthodox and traditional medicine: marriage for the future. The Ghana Pharmaceutical Journal: 40-44.

A general discussion of the positive and negative aspects of traditional medical practices and their potential for integration into the modern health care systems. Includes some interesting details about use of traditional treatments. Discusses some plants used in -traditional obstetrics. Many species are given to pregnant women to help promote the healthy growth of the fetus (e.g. Fleurya destuans and Piper umbellatum are given weekly in preparations of palm soup; these plants have exceptionally high vitamin contents). The powdered bark of Cola gigantea is taken daily for the last week prior to birth to ensure an easy delivery. At the Centre for Research into Plant Medicine at Mampong-Akwapim in Ghana, they have found that a decoction of leaves of Canthium glabriflorum is an effective cure for hypertension. The leaves and steins of Desmodium adscendens and Thonningia sanguinea are effective for treating asthma attacks, and the leaves of Bridelia ferrunginea are effective anti-diabetics (it lowers the blood sugar of patients within twelve weeks of treatment). Discusses other traditional treatments in light of scientific research which has been carried out on these treatment’s biological and chemical properties.

297. Schnell, R. 1946. Sur quelques plantes a usages religieux de la région forestière d’Afrique Occidentale. Journal de la. Société Africaniste 16:29-37.

A descriptive account comparing the religious significance of various forest species to different peoples of the West African forest zone. Chlorophora excelsa (iroko) is a sacred tree throughout the region. It is often considered the “chief” of all trees. Iroko is often protected and sacrifices and gifts are given to it. Villages are often situated near a large iroko. In some cases they are planted in villages. They are especially associated with fertility and birth. For example the Ibo (Nigeria) believe that it furnishes the souls for the newborn. The tree’s wood is used to make sacred masks, and other sacred objects. In some cultures felling the iroko is forbidden. Also discusses other species such as Ceiba pentandra (associated primarily with burials and ancestral ties), Baphia nitida, Harungana paniculata, Elaeophorbia drupifera, Dracaena arborea, Anchomanes dubius, Piper umbellatum, and Eriospora pilosa.

298. Schwartz, A. 1980. La palmeraie subspontanée d’Elaeis guineensis en pays Guéré-Nidrou (ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire). Une explication sociologique. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 17(3-4):283-285.

This paper discusses the socio-cultural importance of oil palms. It includes information on household consumption. And notes that oil palms are the most commonly used food, comprising 28% of the diet.

299. SEMA METRA Conseil, 1987. Etude d’approvisionnement d’Abidjan en énergie domestique. Consultancy report prepared for Ministère des Eaux et Forets, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

A study of the domestic uses of energy in Abidjan. Includes market information on fuelwood and charcoal prices, consumption, and trade.

300. Shiembo, P. 1986. Development and utilization of minor forest products in Cameroon with particular reference to raphia and cane (rattan) palms. MPhil Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, Ibadan University, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This article discusses 5 species of raphia and 3 species of rattan. It argues that raphia and rattan products contribute substantially to the economic, cultural and social welfare of rural communities. Shiembo notes that most rural people use raphia and rattan. However, the study focuses on those who are organised into craft centres. Shiembo estimates that there are 3,600 people working in rattan/raphia production. Most raphia workers are also involved in other economic activities. The author provides some information on the market and trade of fabricated products and raw materials (e.g. market price for gathered cane, farm price for thatch bundles, prices of finished products). In some areas raphia and rattan are severely over-exploited and in short supply. Shiembo describes raphia products including house frames, thatch, fencing, storage and drying racks and buildings (agricultural products), furniture, mats, bags, looms, ropes, market stalls, baskets for food storage and transport, fish traps, canoes, and household equipment. The article examines the methods of production for these items. Some data on the marketing of forest fruits and palm wine is also included. In this region, commonly marketed fruit include Irvingia gabonensis, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Garcinia cola and Tetrapleura tetraptera.

301. Singleton, M. and Vincke, P. 1985. Chasse coutumière et législation cynégénétique: le cas des Séreers du Sénégal. Journal d’Agriculture Traditionnelle et Botanique Appliquée 32:215-234.

An analysis of bushmeat consumption and the traditional hunting practices of the Sereer from Senegal. The current state hunting laws have not affected people’s practices. People hunt for pleasure, food, and to symbolically proclaim their manhood. A good hunt is believed to bring good luck, e.g. guarantee a good harvest, assure a woman’s fertility. This article provides a list of species that are commonly hunted and consumed. Wildlife populations are rapidly dwindling, especially in areas where agricultural cooperatives have been established. The authors suggest that wildlife resources need to be managed by interested groups (e.g. hunting guilds) through “privatisation” of wildlife resources.

302. Smith, V.E. 1979. Household food consumption in rural Sierra Leone. Nutrition Planning, Information Service, Michigan State, Ann Arbor, USA.

A country-wide diet survey. Although the information is aggregated, there is some useful data on the role of tree and forest foods in the average diets of those surveyed. Palm oil, palm kernels (Elaeus guineensis), and bushmeat are all consumed by more than 50% of the population. Relevant data include:






palm oil


palm kernels


dried salt water fish


fresh salt water fish




palm wine

Bushmeat and fish are the roost commonly consumed meats. Certain foods are produced primarily for home consumption among them: palm kernels, cocoa butter, honey, wild greens, palm wine. Great quantities of palm kernels are consumed (only rice is consumed in greater quantities).

303. Snedler, D. 1987. A case study on compound farms in three villages in southeastern Nigeria. Project Report. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This examination of compound farm species (in the study villages) identifies 104 perennials, including 74 tree species, 3 lianas, and 22 shrubs. On average farms were raising between 27 and 36 different plant species.

304. Sofowora, A. 1982. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. USA.

An extremely interesting book which integrates information from ethnobotanical and anthropological studies of traditional medicinal practices, with scientific and pharmacological information. Describes different traditional healing systems and practices; includes an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of these practices. Discusses some common traditional plant treatments (includes many illustrations from West Africa) and reviews both the scientific evidence available to support the uses of traditional plant cures and the current African research on promising plant remedies.

305. SONED, 1982. Etude agro-socioéconomique de la vallée de Guidel. Rapport préliminaires des activités agricoles. Société Nationale d’Energie et Développement, Dakar, Senegal.

Describes the uses of forest resources in the Guidel region of Casamance. Includes information on the marketing of charcoal, fuelwood, and other wood products. Discusses, in a general way, marketing of wild fruits, palm wine and palm oil. Also examines the markets and exploitation of medicinal plants both for local and export markets (e.g. Voacanga africana, collected for the French market).

Includes an analysis of the small-scale forest-based enterprises of the region, charcoal producers, woodworkers, and other wood-based artisans (describing the numbers of people involved, the resources used, and the revenue earned). And estimates the average income earned from the sale of forest resources.

306. Soup Nguifo. 1982. La commercialisation de kola dans la Province de l’Ouest Cameroun. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

An in-depth study of the production, consumption, and marketing of cola nuts in western Cameroon. The two predominant market species are Cola nitida and Cola acuminata. Cola acuminata is the preferred species in western Cameroon and its trade is limited to this region. Cola nitida is generally not consumed in the west and what is collected is traded to the North. Cola nuts are still important symbols of friendship and peace in the region. They are consumed (broken) at all traditional ceremonies, marriages, funerals, and in the settlement of disputes. Includes production estimates for the region. Generally, producers sell at the farm site to merchants who then process the cola. Describes cola nut processing which in many cases is highly specialised. Discusses the economics of this trade, including details on the costs and profits earned by different intermediaries (producers, merchants, retail traders). In general, it is a buyer’s market. There are several central regional markets at which the cola trade is concentrated. These markets cater especially to the bulk traders who are involved in the northern trade of cola (where the big profits are made). In most area markets, cola is sold in bulk, in semi-bulk, and in small quantities (not more than one basket). Most sellers are involved in the small-scale trade. The study reveals that there is a greater demand for cola than there is supply, nonetheless old cola trees are not being replaced. The study also describes other forest resources that are used in the house (e.g. palms and lianas).

307. Spencer, D. and Byerlea, D. 1979. Annual costs, returns, and seasonal labour required for selected farm and non-farm enterprises in rural Sierra Leone. Working Paper No. 27, African Rural Economy Programme, Michigan State, USA.

Off-farm activities provide an important source of income during the off-peak agricultural season. This study presents information on the number of households involved in small scale enterprises and other off-farm artisan activities. It describes the seasonal fluctuations in small scale enterprise activities and finds that the important activities include: palm oil and palm kernel oil processing, palm wine production, hunting, carpentry, and other artisan activities. It finds that 22% of households hunt and 40% consider fishing an important off-farm activity.

The paper examines time spent and revenue gained from each activity. Palm oil processing is the most common enterprise (67% of the households). It provides the highest economic returns to labour.

308. Steckle, J. 1972. Effects of industrialization on food consumption patterns: a study of two Ewe villages (Ghana). Technical Publication Series No. 20. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana.

This study compares the well-being (especially their nutritional status) of villagers in an agricultural and a newly industrial community. It includes information on village demographics, nutritional status, education, health care, food consumption (meal frequency, diet, distribution of food within the household, weaning practices), food purchasing power, energy use, access to markets, economic status (e.g. types of houses), and economic activities (e.g. farming). Palm oil, palm nuts, fish and bushmeat are the main forest foods recorded in the food consumption survey. Notes that the food situation is more stable in the agricultural community.

In the agricultural community everyone uses fuelwood as a source of energy; some (13%) supplement fuelwood with charcoal. In the industrial village a greater mix of fuels are employed. As few families have access to agricultural lands they are forced to purchase the bulk of their fuel.

309. Studstill, J. 1970. L’arbre ancéstral. In Calame-Griaule, G. (ed.) 1969. Le thème de l’arbre dans les contes africains. SELAF (Société d’Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologique de France) 20:119-137, Paris, France.

A linguistic study of the ancestral symbol of the tree in African stories and myths. The tree symbolises ancestral wisdom, authority and custom, and, at the same time, the feared arbitrator. The tree symbolises the bond between the living and the dead and expresses evolutionary and geneological relationships. In some cases it provides the link to the dead, while in others it provides the “home” (seat) of an ancestor.

310. Sylla, L. 1983. Démocratie de l’arbre a palabre et bois sacre: essai sur le pouvoir parallèle des sociétés initiatiques africaines. Revue Ivoirienne d’Anthropologie et de Sociologie 3:12-42.

An essay exploring the symbolic importance of sacred groves and “arbre a palabre” (village trees) in cultural and political life. The sacred groves and “arbre palabre” provide the forum for traditional politics and legislation. The “arbre a palabre” (big village tree) is the venue for traditional government (government style where conflicts are discussed and negotiated), customary justice (the tree provides a symbolic link to ancestors) and social regulation. The second sacred symbol of political power is the sacred grove, the site of initiation ceremonies. Sacred groves contain the most sacred relics of society and symbolically link the group with their ancestors.

311. Szolnoki, T.W. 1985. Food and fruit trees of the Gambia. Stiftung Wälderhaltung in Afrika, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

This book describes 40 common food trees from the Gambia. It includes a botanic description, information on their cultivation and propagation and their use in foods. Where information is available, this book provides data on the nutritional quality of different tree foods, the plant parts eaten and methods by which they are consumed. The book also discusses the seasonal dimensions of consumption of different tree foods. It is a useful field-oriented publication.

312. Tall, E.K. 1984. Guérir à Cubatel: interprétation de la maladie et pratiques thérapeutiques chez les Haalpulaaren dans la vallée du fleuve al de Sénégal. PhD Thesis, Paris University, France (unpublished).

This paper describes the traditional Senegalese medical system and its practices. It analyses how the system is evolving. One chapter is devoted to the medicinal plants used for different treatments. There are 20 principal species which are used. The study also includes information on the magi co-mystical uses of these species.

313. Tanga, S. 1974. La région de Foumbot (Cameroon): étude géographique. Memoire DES, Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

A geographic study of the Foumbot region north of Bafoussam. Includes a discussion on the comparative costs of rural housing. Provides data on the quantities of material needed for traditional houses. For example, a one-room traditional “poto-poto” (mud and wattle) would use 35 poles, 600 palm spines, and 500 palm leaves as thatch roofing.

314. Téhé, H. 1980. Utilisations des plantes chez les Guérés et les Oubis (Côte d’Ivoire). Centre ORSTOM, Adiopodoume, Côte d’Ivoire.

This descriptive account of the household use of forest resources includes information on culturally important species, plants used in medical treatments, those gathered and consumed regularly and those used only during emergency periods. Forest food plants are categorised by their food use (e.g. seeds for oil production (Tieghemella heckelii)).

315. Tehe, H. 1986. Utilisations des ressources forestiers chez les Guérés et les Oubis (Côte d’Ivoire). Banco (Côte d’Ivoire) 4:26-30.

A descriptive account of the day to day use of forest resources by two Ivoirien forest communities. Many foods are garnered from the forest including snacks foods such as Coula edulis, Tarrietia utilis, and Mammea africana, those added to sauces such as Irvingia gabonensis, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Tieghemella heckelii, Hibiscus asper and Calamus deërratus, and those used for salt such as Ficus exasperata and Bussea occidentalis.

Forest plants are also used to construct houses (e.g. the leaves of Megaphrynium distans provide roofing material, poles are often Coula edulis and Strombosia glaucescens), agricultural tools (e.g. the handles of machetes and hoes are often made with Diospyros sp. and Balanites wilsoniana), household equipment (e.g. the mortar and pestle are made from Coula edulis and Terminalia ivorensis) and musical instruments.

Forest resources figure prominently in many Guéré and Oubi traditions. For example, ritual sacrifices are always held under Chlorophora excelsa and Ceiba pentandra, Dracaena humilis and Kantou guerensis are used to ward off evil spirits during ceremonies.

316. Teleki, G. and Baldwin, L. 1981. Sierra Leone’s wildlife legacy: options for survival. Zoonooz (San Diego, USA) 54(10):21-28.

Bushmeat was once a staple food in many Sierra Leoneans’ diets. But wildlife has become scarce throughout all regions of Sierra Leone and as a result, bushmeat is less commonly consumed (at the time the authors note that bushmeat can be found in most rural villages and markets). There is still intensive hunting for bushmeat which is sold in the Liberian markets (for dollars). This article reviews the history of the resource’s over-exploitation (colonial timber extraction, anti-pest campaigns (monkey bounty-hunting) causing the destruction of one food resource for the protection of another). It presents information on the remaining wildlife resources, and discusses the needs for conservation.

317. Terribile, J.N. 1975. Contribution a l’inventaire des plantes médicinales du Togo du Sud. Mémoire, Université de Benin, Togo (unpublished).

This paper describes 131 plant species that are used in traditional medical treatments in southern Togo. The background information comes from interviews with traditional healers and fetishists. The study includes descriptions of mystical and magical plant properties while it also reviews the social values these plants represent. For example, Funtumia africana is a respected tree; its wood is used for the ancestral throne, and to make ceremonial objects (royal sceptre).

318. Thomas, D.W. and Tobias, M.F. 1987. Medicinal and food plants from Cameroon’s forests: development and conservation. Paper prepared for the UNDP/FAD Forestry Sector Review of Cameroon (unpublished).

The paper draws on both historical information and the authors’ personal experiences presenting data on medicinal, insecticidal and molluscicidal plants in Cameroon. The authors provide a brief explanation of the plant properties as they relate to their traditional medicinal uses (e.g. molluscicidal phytochemicals kill the host snails of schistosomiasis) and list the species valued for those properties. The material is descriptive. The potential for development some of these medicinal plant products is assessed. The paper also describes some of the forest food trees of different regions of Cameroon.

319. Thomi, W.H. and Yankson, P.W. 1985. Small scale industries and decentralization in Ghana: a preliminary report on small scale industries in small and medium size towns in Ghana. University of Ghana, Department of Geography, Legon, Ghana.

In exploring the general characteristics of small industries, this article includes information on the types of enterprises that exist and the numbers of people they employ. The majority of the industries are new. Food processing is the most common activity: fish smoking, baking, brewing, and palm oil processing. Wood based industries (small saw mill enterprises and carpentry) appear to be the most lucrative. Information on handicraft (especially basketry) and soap production, cloth dying and drum making is also provided.

320. Trincaz, J. 1980. L’arbre garant de la pérennité culturelle d’une société d’émigrés menacée. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 17(3-4):285-289.

This essay describes the symbolic and cultural importance of a tree in the lives of Senegalese immigrants from Guinea Bissau. These immigrants have brought their sacred tree to their new home. There, it acts as a socially unifying symbol, providing some cultural continuity. It is protected and revered. The tree houses the spirits of the forest who are revered for the protection they afford. At the same time, trees native to their new home are destroyed without hesitation as they have little meaning for the group.

321. Trincaz, P. 1980. L’importance de l’arbre dans l’imaginaire de Cheikh Mamadeu Sane. Du rêve religieux a la réalité du village thérapeutique dans la forêt Casamançaise. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 17(3-4):309-311.

This article describes a healing village in Casamance, Senegal, which is located at the foot of a large forest tree (Ceiba pentandra). It discusses the therapeutic value of the forest environment for treating psychological problems, and the mythical, religious and social importance of the tree itself.

322. Tripp, R. No date. Farmers and traders: economic strategies and nutritional status in northern Ghana (unpublished).

A descriptive account of food consumption of people from a settlement area in northern Ghana. The staple, porridge, is accompanied by vegetable or wild meat sauces. Shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa, syn. Butyrospermum parkii) is the only oil source. The study attempts to distinguish between the causes and “indicators” of malnutrition, however the data is not conclusive.

323. Turay, J. 1987. Personal communication. Forestry Officer in Sierra Leone’s Northern District (currently working for the FAO Fuelwood Project).

An excellent discussion regarding local use of forest products including the resources used for commonly consumed foods and medicines, and the materials used for making household items such as baskets, mats, food storage containers, and food wraps. Turay also identifies the forest materials that are used in house building. Diospyros sp. is used for house poles. Psychotria rufipilis and Craterispermum laurinum are used for the cross wattle slats. Rooves are commonly made with leaf fronds of raphia palms. Finally, a forest liana is used for tying the wattle to the poles.

324. Ucha, N. 1988. Use of indigenous browse species in southeastern Nigeria. Research project in progress. International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), Humid Zone Programme, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

An interesting study on common browse species and their uses in this region. Includes a list of species along with calculations on the frequency with which different species are used. The most frequently used species were Acioa barterii, Baphia nitida, Dialium guineense and Alchornea cordifolia. Tethering livestock and collecting fodder, especially during the rainy season, are increasingly common. Information on the medicinal and feed value of some species is also discussed. Some fodder species are valued for their medicinal qualities as much as their feed value.

325. Ume Okafor, E.A.U. 1987. Deforestation and rural development: a case study of Isuofia rural electrification project. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Forestry Association, Ikeja, Nigeria, 6-10 December, pp. 21-24 (unpublished).

An interesting assessment of the costs of deforestation to local farmers. Examining what was felled on a transect (pole line) provides a useful illustration of the trees found on and near farms. 17.5 km (6 m wide) were cleared for pole erection. A total of 507 trees were felled; 28% were Ricinodendron heudelotii (used as yam stakes, for fodder, food, fences, and boundary markers); 24% were Elaeis guineensis (for palm oil, palm wine and many household items), other common species were Acioa barterii, Dacryodes edulis, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Treculia africana, Mangifera sp., Cola sp., Citrus sp. and Bosqueia angolensis. In all 23 different species were felled.

The author, based on 150 farmer interviews in one village, estimates the income farmers had earned from these resources. He calculates that annual revenue from the cleared trees had been 10,290 naira. This estimate is conservative as it does not include the myriad of products that were used for home consumption.

326. Umeh, L. 1985. Management of agroforestry systems in the lowland humid tropics: a study of some village communities in southern Nigeria. PhD Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This interesting study of agroforestry practices in southern Nigeria includes a great deal of information on indigenous farming practices. It also includes an economic analysis of an on-farm agroforestry trial of four different tree species mixed with local agricultural crops. In all cases the introduction of trees (e.g. Irvingia gabonensis, Leucaena sp., Gmelina sp.) increased farmers’ income. The highest yielding combination was Irvingia gabonensis and cocoyam. When asked, farmers said they left trees on farm land to increase cash-income, improve soil conservation, and provide shade, firewood, fruits, building poles, wood for farm implements, timber, and drink (palm wine). Many farmers in the region already plant trees, 83.5% of those interviewed were interested in planting trees; 74.2% earned some income from planted trees.

327. Uwalaka, R.E. 1985. Seed characteristics, germination and early growth of some edible forest species. Thesis, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

Discusses the food uses of some forest tree fruits, leaves and seeds. Notes that many traditional forest foods also have medicinal values, for example, the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica are cooked in soups for expectant mothers. An extract of the bark and fruit is used to treat dysentery and bronchitis. The root extract is used for treating boils. It and also acts as a pain reliever. Also discusses the uses of Pentaclethra macrophylla, Chrysophyllum albidum, Dialium guineense. Piper guineense, and Afromomum melegueta.

328. Vergiat, A.M. 1969. Plantes magiques et médicinales des féticheurs de l’Ougangui (Centre Afrique). Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et Botaniques Appliquées 16(2-10, 17(1-9):3 parts).

This series presents detailed information on the medicinal and mystical use of plants. It is divided into three sections: an account of fetish medicinal practices, descriptions of traditional treatments arranged according to illness, and a descriptive list of medicinal plants. Traditionally a tree is planted in the brush for a newborn child. A fast-growing, profuse fruiter is planted for female children. The child’s development is linked to the growth of the tree. If the tree’s growth declines, people fear for the child’s health and a healer is called. When the child is sick it is brought to the tree for treatment. When the tree begins to fruit, the time has come for the child to marry. Occasionally gifts are left for the tree throughout a person’s life. When someone dies it is believed that their spirit goes to reside in their personal (“birthright”) tree.

329. Vérnière, M. 1969. Anyama, étude de la population et du commerce kolatier. Cahiers d’ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 6(I):83-112.

A case study of the importance of the cola nut trade in Anyama (Senegal). The gathering and sale of cola provides the main source of income for the town’s 6,000 residents. The principal market is Dakar. A second forest product, Thaumatococcus daniellii leaf, plays an important role in this enterprise as it is the only product used for packaging cola nuts.

330. Verschuren, J. 1983. Conservation of tropical rainforest in Liberia: recommendations for wildlife conservation and national parks. Prepared for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Government of Liberia.

The background information for this project includes a summary of the use and status of Liberia’s wildlife. In Liberia hunting (with rifles) is widespread. There are no hunting regulations and few “indigenous” regulatory practices still exist. Antelopes (e.g. duikers) and monkeys are most heavily hunted, however the antelope population appears to be well adapted to heavy exploitation and forest clearing.

331. Vial, Fayolle and Levante. 1966. Aspect économique du sector de l’artisanat. République de Côte d’Ivoire. Société d’étude pour le developpement économique et sociale, Paris, France.

This general study of artisan activities in Côte d’Ivoire distinguishes between service (e.g. cleaners and repair shops), production (e.g. bakers and cabinet makers), and traditional enterprises (sculptors, basket weaving, and cloth dying). It provides detailed data on the number of enterprises, the people employed, the costs and returns of production, and the value-added in these varied activities. And it notes that these enterprises are labour intensive, employing many apprentices. Many of these enterprises use forest resources as raw materials (e.g. wood used in sculpture) and in processing (e.g. fuelwood and charcoal used in baking, smithing, and preparing food). For each activity, this study estimates the cost of the fuelwood and/or charcoal that is used. Statistics on the costs and revenues earned in the production of different wood and cabinet craft items are also provided.

332. Vincke, P.P., Singleton, M. and Diouf, P.S.D. 1987. Chasse alimentaire chez les Séreers du Siné (Senegal). Paper presented at the International Symposium and Conference: Wildlife Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 6-13 October. Sponsored by FAO and the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, pp. 653-656.

This paper presents the results of a study of the subsistence bushmeat hunting in Sine, Senegal(a region of poor wildlife resources). It finds that birds are the most commonly consumed animals; most hunting is done by children, who consume the greatest quantities of bushmeat; average bushmeat consumption in the village is 12.9 g/day/person (.consumption of domestic animals - total - is an average 24 g/day/person). There is one bushmeat species that is protected (and often captured) because it is a totem animal of the Sereer.

333. Visser, L. 1975 Plantes médicinales de la Côte d’Ivoire. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool (No. 75-15), Wageningen, The Netherlands.

An ethnobotanical study of the medicinal uses of plants by the Ando people of Côte d’Ivoire. Notes that the mystical and healing qualities of Ando medicinal plants cannot be separated. Describes Ando medicine practices and beliefs. Distinguishes between plants used commonly by the population and those known only to traditional specialist healers. Women are generally most knowledgeable about forest plant medicines as they regularly collect fuelwood and food from forests. Plant medicines are generally collected when they are needed. The most regularly used species are often planted near home compounds for convenience (e.g. Jatropha curcas whose seeds are used for soap-making and whose leaves and latex, when grilled, are applied to cuts and abcesses).

Describes the treatments and methods in which 84 different plant species are employed. Finds that some treatments are given preventively. The most common “daily” treatments are prepared as enemas. For example, a decoction of the leaves of Cnestis ferrunginea is used for treating diarrohoea and dysentery, the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides and Capsicum sp. are used against intestinal worms, while the crushed leaves of Ficus asperifolia and pepper (Capsicum annuum) are used for abortions. Notes that as forest resources are becoming degraded, knowledge about plant medicines has declined.

Includes a great deal of detailed information on forest plant species of particular cultural significance. For example, the Bombax sp. tree is planted when villages are established - until that moment a settlement is considered a camp. Blighia sapida is planted (or left) as a village tree. It is a heavy fruiter and a symbol of fecundity. Other village tree species, “l’arbre a palabre”, are valued for shade (e.g. Cordia millenii, Bombax buonopozense).

334. Vivien, J. 1988 (in press). Fruitiers sauvages. Institut de Recherche de Fruits et Agrumes, Montpellier, France.

A series of articles to be published in this review on the wild fruit species of Cameroon. Covers 200 edible wild fruit species of the forest zone, describing the fruit, its economic importance, how it is prepared, and the parts that are consumed. Includes a table listing the wild fruits which are marketed in urban areas.

335. Vivien, J. and Faure, J. 1985. Arbres des forets denses d’Afrique Centrale. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France.

A botanical study of the trees of the west and central African high forests. Describes 333 species. Focuses on species distribution in Cameroon. Includes some information on the local uses of these species. For example, the roots and bark of Picralima nitida are used as medicine. The seeds provide a local anaesthetic. The fruits of Dacryodes macrophylla are eaten.

336. deVos, A. 1977. Game as food: a report on its significance in Africa and Latin America. Unasylva 29(11):2-12.

This article examines rural African use of wildlife as food. It provides a good review of the research that has been conducted. Small animals such as rodents are the most commonly consumed species. Hunting them is unrestricted, because they have high reproduction rates and are often more numerous than larger species. In West Africa the giant rat and the grasscutter are the most important types of bushmeat. deVos provides comparative tables that indicates the nutritional contribution wild meat makes to peoples’ diets. He notes that the consumption of bushmeat is closely linked to supply thus, there are great regional variations in consumption. deVos’ studies indicates that the condition of the forest resource directly affects wild meat consumption.

337. Wahua, T. and Oji. 1987. Survey of browse plants in upland areas of River State, Nigeria. In Reynolds, L. and Atta-Krah, A.N (eds.). Browse and small ruminant production in southeastern Nigeria: proceedings of a symposium. International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA), Humid Zone Programme, Ibadan, Nigeria (unpublished).

This study examines small livestock management practices and includes a survey of 35 browse species. Some of the species it mentions are found only in the regions that are discussed. There are descriptions of species that are used for livestock ailments or have other special uses (e.g. Manniophytom fulvum is used to defatten goats for pregnancy).

338. Walker, A. and Sillans, R. 1961. Les plantes utiles du Gabon. Encyclopédie Biologique No. 56. Ed. Lechevalier.

339. Weber, J. 1974. Structure agraire et évolution des milieux ruraux: le cas de la région cacaoyère de centre-sud Cameroun. ORSTOM, Paris, France.

Compares the historic agricultural practices and lifestyle of cocoa producers with that of contemporary producers in the southern central region of Cameroon. The study examines farming practices of three households in different regions of southern Cameroon. It finds that cocoa production varies greatly between farmers, based primarily upon their need for cash. In the more remote regions, where wild game and land are still plentiful, farmers need cash primarily to pay taxes, thus only a fraction of their cocoa is actually harvested. In this case cocoa serves as a reserve or insurance system. In areas where game and land are scarce, farmers rely on the market for food and thus have a greater need for cash.

Formerly men were responsible for forest clearing, hunting and collection of wild fruit and other foods. Women were responsible for agricultural production. In all areas hunting and fishing are still considered important activities.

340. Weigel, J. 1982. Aspects économiques de la transformation artisanale du poisson en Côte d’Ivoire. Document ORSTOM, Paris, France.

Discusses operation and economics of small-scale fish smoking enterprises. Notes that fuel (wood or charcoal) for smoking can account for as much as 20% of production costs.

341. Wiredu, M.A. 1982. The educational, recreational and cultural values of the Kumasi Zoo. BSc Thesis, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (unpublished).

Reviews the subsistence importance of wildlife as a source of food. Describes cultural values of different totem animals and describes the symbolic roles animals have played in traditional beliefs and festivals. Includes a compilation of proverbs associated with wildlife species.

342. Wood, A. 1987. Personal communication. National Council for Women and Development, Accra, Ghana.

Discussed fuelwood requirements for different enterprises that are dominated by women, especially food processing and fish smoking. Also reviewed some of the traditional food that are still ceremonially prepared.

343. Wundo, T.T. 1977. Mbengwi: urbanisation in a rural environment. Maîtrise DES, Department of Geography, University of Yaoundé, Cameroon (unpublished).

This paper compares construction costs for traditional, semi-permanent and permanent houses. Traditional houses are built with locally available (usually gathered) materials including poles, lianas, bamboo, raphia spines, and, in some cases, raphia roofing. The study estimates that a semi-permanent house costs more than three times as much as a traditional house, while a permanent structure would cost more than fifteen times more than a traditional dwelling.

344. van der Zon, A.P. and Grubben, G. 1976. Les légumes-feuilles spontanés et cultives du Sud-Dahomey. Communication 65, Département des Recherches Agronomiques, Koninklijk Institut voor de Tropen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study of wild and cultivated leaf vegetables in southern Dahomey (Benin), estimates that 10% of the leaf vegetables that are sold are collected from the wild. In some seasons and regions, the most commonly marketed leaves have been gathered, not cultivated. Common species include: Justica anselliana, Polygonum pulchrum and Talinum triangulare.


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