Forestry and food security

Table of contents




Reprinted 1991, 1996

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ISBN 92-5-102847-8

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FAO 1989



Chapter 1: Overview

1.1 Introduction: The concept of food security
1.2 Putting forestry in perspective
1.3 The links between forestry and food security

1.3.1 Environmental links
1.3.2 Production links
1.3.3 Socio-economic links

1.4 Opportunities for action
1.5 Setting the policy framework: new goals and approaches

Chapter 2: Environmental links between forestry and food security

2.1 Trees and the microclimate

2.1.1 Temperature and humidity
2.1.2 Shade
2.1.3 Moisture availability

2.2 Windbreaks, soil erosion and food crop yields

2.2.1 Trees: barriers against erosion
2.2.2 Other benefits of windbreaks
2.2.3 Effects of windbreaks on crop yields

2.3 Tree's role in preventing water erosion
2.4 Protection afforded by forests in critical or hazardous areas

2.4.1 Unstable slopes
2.4.2 Coastal protection
2.4.3 Riparian forests
2.4.4 Areas prone to salinisation
2.4.5 Dune stabilisation

2.5 Forests and water supply

2.5.1 The effects of forest cover on stream flow and groundwater levels
2.5.2 Forests and stormflows
2.5.3 Low flows

2.6 Forests, sediment and water quality
2.7 Forests and the global climate

2.7.1 The Albedo effect
2.7.2 Carbon dioxide

2.8 Forests, rainmakers?

2.8.1 The Amazon basin
2.8.2 Cloud forests

2.9 Forests and genetic resources

Chapter 3: Forestry and food production

3.1 Wild foods from the forests

3.1.1 Food from wild plants
3.1.2 Food from wild animals

3.2 Food producing trees on the farm

3.2.1 Home gardens
3.2.2 Cultivated food-producing trees

3.3 Trees and shrubs as a source of livestock fodder

3.3.1 Trees and shrubs within pastoral systems
3.3.2 Fodder production and nutritive value
3.3.3 Improved use of tree fodder

3.4 Trees and crop production

3.4.1 Trees and improvements to the soil
3.4.2 Nitrogen-fixing trees
3.4.3 Nutrient cycling in agroforestry systems
3.4.4 Possible detrimental effects of trees

3.5 Food production from mangroves

3.5.1 Mangroves: support for coastal fisheries
3.5.2 Additional food products from mangroves
3.5.3 Pressures on mangrove ecosystems

Chapter 4: The socio-economic aspects of forestry and food security

4.1 The dietary role of forest foods

4.1.1 Forest foods as a dietary supplement
4.1.2 Trees and forests as seasonal food resources
4.1.3 The emergency role of forest foods

4.2 Changing diets
4.3 Fuelwood and household nutrition
4.4 Forestry and disease
4.5 Income and employment from forests

4.5.1 Gathering enterprises
4.5.2 Processing enterprises
4.5.3 Employment in forest-based activities
4.5.4 The importance of forest-based enterprises for women
4.5.5 Contribution to household food security: the role of forest-based income
4.5.6 Constraints to further development of forest-based enterprises

4.6 Farm trees: contributions to household food security

4.6.1 Home gardens: intensive tree management
4.6.2 Trees as cash crops: the case of farm woodlots
4.6.3 Management of forest fallows
4.6.4 Farmers' incentives for tree growing
4.6.5 Tree cash crops and household food security
4.6.6 Trees as a form of insurance

4.7 Land tenure and food security

4.7.1 Distribution of land-holdings
4.7.2 Ownership of trees

4.8 Common property resources: assuring household food security

4.8.1 Diversity of common property systems
4.8.2 Externally-imposed common property systems
4.8.3 Building on existing institutions

Chapter 5: Opportunities for action

5.1 Setting the policy framework: diversifying forestry activities to meet people's needs

5.1.1 Defining policy objectives
5.1.2 Land-use policies: promoting sustainable uses
5.1.3 Holistic approach

5.2 Institutions: support for food security objectives
5.3 Research priorities
5.4 Approaches

5.4.1. Identifying the problems
5.4.2 Identifying target groups
5.4.3 Importance of women

5.5 Important lines of action

5.5.1 Diversifying forest management to incorporate locally valued products
5.5.2 Encouraging tree growing on farms
5.5.3 Supporting small-scale forest-based enterprises
5.5.4 Providing market support

5.6 Concluding remarks

Annex I